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Jan. 09.

Syed Waheed Ashraf

Syed Waheed Ashraf is an Indian Sufi scholar and poet in Persian and Urdu. Ashraf received his B.A., M.A. and PhD (1965) degrees from Aligarh Muslim University. The title of his doctoral dissertation was A Critical Edition of Lataife Ashrafi. After serving at a number of Indian universities (Punjabi University at Patiala, M.S. University of Baroda and the University of Madras), Ashraf retired as head of the department of Arabic, Persian and Urdu at the University of Madras in 1993 expandable fanny pack. Fluent in seven languages (Pahlavi, Persian, Arabic, Urdu, English, Hindi and Gujarati), he writes in Urdu, Persian and English, has written, edited or compiled over 35 books and a number of research articles, and has been honoured in India and abroad. Ashraf has focused on upholding and propagating the principles and practices of Sufism.

Ashraf traces his lineage to a family of Syeds in Kachhauchha Sharif, a small town in the district of Ambedkar Nagar, eastern Uttar Pradesh. He was born on 4 February 1933, the third child of librarian Syed Habeeb Ashraf and Syeda Saeeda. Habeeb worked in the village library; although he was enrolled at Firangi Mahal, a madrasa in Lucknow dry pack cell phone case, he did not complete his education due to the death of his father. He was well-versed in Ilmul Jafar and Ilmul Ramal (Islamic geomancy). Habeeb wrote to his eldest son, Syed Amin Ashraf (who was stationed in Aligarh), six months before his death asking him to be home on 3 February 1972 for his burial.

Syeda Saeeda was the daughter of a Unani doctor in the village. Before her marriage, she assisted her father in the preparation of drugs in his dispensary and acquired a knowledge of Unani medicine (particularly diseases of women and children).

Habeeb and Syeda had four sons and three daughters. The two elder sons were Syed Amin Ashraf and Syed Hameed Ashraf. The youngest son (and their fifth child) was Syed Ashraf. Their daughters were Syeda Mahmooda, Syeda Masooda and Syeda Raheen. Syed Amin Ashraf received his PhD in English literature from Aligarh Muslim University, and later taught in the same department. Amin Ashraf is regarded as an accomplished poet in Urdu ghazals. He has compiled three poetic collections – Jadae Shab, Bahare Ijaad and Qafase Rang – and a collection of his papers in a book, Bargo Bar. He has received[citation needed] awards from Ghalib Academy, New Delhi and Uttar Pradesh Urdu Academy in Lucknow. Several critical essays about his poetry have been published. Their second son, Syed Hameed Ashraf (who died in 1993), studied Shariah at Al Jamiatul Ashrafia Mubarakpur and Darul Uloom Deoband, received B.A., M.A. and M.Phil degrees in Arabic literature from Aligarh Muslim University and taught at a number of Indian madrasas. Syed Waheed Ashraf learned Islamic theology from his brother, Syed Hameed Ashraf.

Ashraf received his primary education from the village madrasa and graduated from middle school in Baskhari, a small town near his home, in 1948. He received his high-school certificate from Mohd. Hasan Inter College in Jaunpur District. After high school, Ashraf suspended his studies for seven years due to poor health. He then earned his undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral degrees (1965) from Aligarh Muslim University.

After receiving his PhD, Ashraf was a temporary lecturer at Punjabi University in Patiala for a year before returning to Aligarh University as a UGC senior research fellow. In 1971, he received a permanent faculty position as a lecturer at M.S. University of Baroda in Gujarat. In 1977, Ashraf joined the University of Madras as a reader in Persian. He became a professor in 1982, and retired as head of the department of Arabic, Persian and Urdu at the University of Madras in 1993.

Ashraf was devoted to Sufi literature. After completing his education at Aligarh Muslim University, he gave spiritual allegiance (baith) to Syed Qadeer Ahmad Ashrafiul Jilani in Kichaucha Sharif. He was initiated into the Ashrafiya order, and Jilani made him his successor (khalifa). Ashraf delivered lectures on Masnavi Maulan Rum at his home in Baroda.

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Jul. 19.

Stefan Warschawski

Stefan Emanuel Warschawski (* 8

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. April 1904 in Lida, Gouvernement Wilna; † 5. Mai 1989 in San Diego) war ein US-amerikanischer Mathematiker.

Warschawski wurde als Sohn eines Arztes im damals russischen (ab 1919 polnischen, heute weißrussischen) Lida geboren. Die Familie war deutschsprachig und wohnte ab 1915 in Königsberg, wo Stefan Warschawski zur Schule ging thermos sale. Er studierte ab 1924 an der Universität Königsberg (bei Konrad Knopp und Werner Rogosinski), in Göttingen (1926/27) und Basel (wohin er Alexander Ostrowski folgte) Mathematik. 1932 wurde er in Basel bei Alexander Ostrowski summa cum laude promoviert (Über das Randwertverhalten der Ableitung der Abbildungsfunktion bei konformer Abbildung) dry pack cell phone case. 1930 bis 1933 war er Assistent am Mathematischen Institut in Göttingen, ein Posten, den er 1933 mit der Machtergreifung der Nationalsozialisten verlor, da er Jude war. Er emigrierte zunächst in die Niederlande (Universität Utrecht) und dann in die USA, war an der Columbia University in New York und 1939 zunächst Assistant Professor und dann Associate Professor an der Washington University in St. Louis. Während des Zweiten Weltkriegs wurde er Professor an der Brown University und später an der University of Minnesota, wo er 1952 Vorstand der Mathematikfakultät wurde, und 1963 an der University of California, San Diego, wo er bis 1967 den Lehrstuhl für Mathematik hatte, den er aus Gesundheitsgründen niederlegte. 1971 wurde er emeritiert, blieb aber wissenschaftlich aktiv.

Er befasste sich mit Theorie der konformen Abbildung razor for clothes, auch unter numerischen Aspekten. Der Satz von Kiyoshi Noshiro und Warschawski besagt, dass eine auf der offenen Einheitskreisscheibe analytische Funktion mit positivem Realteil der ersten Ableitung eineindeutig (also schlicht) ist. 1980 löste er das Visser-Ostrowski-Problem des Randverhaltens der Ableitung einer konformen Abbildung.

An der University of California at San Diego wurde eine Professur und ein Stipendium nach ihm benannt. Seine 2009 verstorbene Ehefrau Ilse Kayser, die er 1947 heiratete, vermachte 1 Million Dollar an die Universität.

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Mrz. 28.

Ali Muhsin al-Barwani

Ali Muhsin Al-Barwani (13 January 1919 in Stone Town – 20 March 2006 in Muscat, Oman) was a Zanzibari politician and diplomat under the Sultanate of Zanzibar. He was the only Arab foreign minister of an independent Zanzibar before the establishment of the People’s Republic of Zanzibar. When his government was overthrown in January 1964 Barwani was held in detention centers across Tanzania until his release in 1974, when he fled to Kenya as a refugee. After obtaining refugee status dry pack cell phone case, Barwani moved to Cairo then back to Kenya then to Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. In the UAE, Barwani translated the Qur’an into Swahili (Swahili kiUnguja) Qur’ani Tukufu for which he is most prominently known.

During the years of the Busa’idi Sultanate based in Zanzibar the Barwani were involved in the development of the east African coast from Barawa (in the north, in what was to become Italian Somaliland) to Lindi, in the south, a town founded by Sheikh Ali’s maternal grandfather (in what was to become German East Africa). His maternal grandmother was related to the wa Mtwapa, one of the twelve miji (or taifa ‚groups‘) comprising Swahili Mombasa. Ali was an outstanding student and in 1937 the lemon squeeze, aged eighteen, he passed ffortlessly from government secondary school in Zanzibar to university at Makerere in Kampala.

His admission was unusual in that he gained university entrance on the strength of a phone-call from his headmaster (L.W. Hollingsworth) to the Director of Education, Zanzibar – no examination required ! At Makerere, then the only institution for higher learning in East Africa, Ali read agriculture. A fellow student at that time was Julius Nyerere who, as President of Tanganyika, was to play a significant role in Sheikh Ali’s life some 20 years later. In 1942, on his return to Zanzibar, he was employed by the Protectorate government as an assistant agricultural officer at Mangapwani.

Two years later he married Bi. Azza binti Muhammad Seif Al-Busa’idi – marriage made in heaven it would seem. After the second World War (1939-1945) Ali developed a taste for politics which manifested itself in two ways. First, for some fifteen years, he edited the newspaper Mwongozi and, secondly, he joined the Zanzibar Nationalist Party (ZNP).

One of Ali’s ambitions was to transform Zanzibar into a non-racial society and, to this end, he promoted the implementation of a common electoral roll. After the Zanzibar Sultanate attained internal self-government in 1961 Sheikh Ali was appointed Minister of Education.

In this post he ensured that married female teachers were eligible for maternity leave and maternity pay – his innovation being soon adopted by other ministries. Subsequent cabinet posts were Minister of the Interior and Minister for Foreign Affairs and Commerce. In March and April 1962 Sheikh Ali visited London for the Kenya Coastal Strip (the Kenya Protectorate) conference at Lancaster House, which closed without any firm decision being taken on the integration of the coastal strip (mwambao) with the rest of Kenya. Sheikh Ali attended as one of eight elected members from Zanzibar.

On 12 January 1964 a revolution brought the Busa’idi Sultanate in Zanzibar (established in the 1830s) to a bloody and sudden end Sheikh Ali (with others) was detained for six months at Kilimani, Zanzibar Stone Town, before being flown to the mainland. Here his detention continued at Keko, Ukonga (Dar es Salaam), Dodoma, Mwanza and Bukoba for a period of ten years and four months, but he was never charged with any offence. In May 1974 he was released, but his application for a Tanzanian passport was refused.

Sheikh Ali then determined to enter neighbouring Kenya illicitly. His point of entry was Vanga, and thence he traveled to Nairobi (via Mombasa) where he applied for and obtained refugee status. He was fated never to see Zanzibar again. Perhaps the authorities in both revolutionary Zanzibar and in Tanganyika (subsequently the United Republic of Tanzania) saw in Sheikh Ali’s intellect and ability a potential threat to their leadership. Whether this was so or not it is now idle to speculate. Once his papers were in order Sheikh Ali traveled to Cairo.

After a stay of several years he returned to Kenya, this time lawfully.For a while he lived in Ganjoni, Mombasa, and then at Mtongwe. From there Sheikh Ali and his family moved to Dubai, in the United Arab Emirates. Here, in 1989 his beloved companion for life died, after almost half a century of marriage.

It was the cruelest of blows. At about this time began the affliction of failing eyesight. Notwithstanding, Sheikh Ali was able to complete and publish his magnum opus, his interpretation of the Qur’an into the Swahili of Zanzibar (kiUnguja). This monumental work (the first impression appeared in two volumes, 1995; the second in one volume, 2000) owes everything to the Swahili of Sheikh Ali’s parents and nothing to the standardized language of Europeans and others.

This was truly a labour of love, with beauty and elegance evident in virtually every verse. In 1997 came Ruwaza Njema (‚The Perfect Pattern‘) how to use meat tenderizer seasoning, a long poem in praise of the Prophet Muhammad, with exemplary annotations at the end of each chapter. The years which remained to him were spent in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, the birthplace of his wife’s parents. Had there been no revolution in Zanzibar and had the Bu Sa’idi Sultanate not been terminated it is conceivable that Sheikh Ali might have attained the highest office in the land, but it was not to be.

Sheikh Ali’s claim to fame lies rather less in the domain of politics, and rather more in the pages of his Swahili Qur’an. He was not the first to attempt such a task (notable predecessors were Sheikh al-Amin bin Ali al-Mazrui and Sheikh Abdullah Saleh al-Farsy) but it is Sheikh Ali’s text which best displays the Swahili language in all its glory.


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, it was a task undertaken not lightly, and carried to its conclusion at a time of great personal distress. This, his memorial, will surely endure for as long as the language and the literature of the Swahili-speaking peoples survive. Sheikh Ali died in Muscat on Monday 20 March 2006, in his eighty-sixth year.

Barwani graduated from Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda, in 1942.

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