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Jul. 30.

Glam rock


Gruppi musicali glam rock · Musicisti glam rock · Album glam rock · EP glam rock · Singoli glam rock · Album video glam rock

Il glam rock (o glitter rock), è un genere di musica rock popolare negli anni settanta, soprattutto nel Regno Unito e nelle grandi città statunitensi quali New York, Detroit.

Il genere prende il nome dall’abbigliamento „Glamour„, ovvero un look curato, colorato e vistoso che caratterizzava gli esponenti del genere.

Il glam rock, definito in passato anche come glitter rock, emerse nei primi anni settanta in seguito al fenomeno hippie e come antidoto all’eccessiva serietà dell’epoca. Questo fenomeno si sviluppò quasi interamente nel Regno Unito e divenne largamente popolare durante la prima metà degli anni settanta. Il primo autore che fece da ponte tra l’era hippie e la nascita del glam fu probabilmente l’ex modello Marc Bolan, il primo ad indossare scialle di piume, lustrini e cilindro, e a scrivere canzoni che non venivano prese sul serio.

Il secondo personaggio fu l’amico di Bolan, David Bowie. Il suo album Ziggy Stardust (1972) venne pubblicato poco dopo lo sbarco sulla luna dell’Apollo (1969); qui l’artista usava esibizioni shoccanti di carattere sessualmente ambiguo e di grande effetto per conquistare il pubblico. Il glam rock era un genere estremamente semplice, dove la chitarra rock incontrava un’esagerata teatralità. La maggior parte di questa musica era molto accattivante, spesso composta da melodie ispirate al fenomeno adolescenziale del bubblegum pop mescolate alle ritmiche del primo rock & roll. Ma queste influenze risultavano in secondo piano rispetto al modo di esprimersi dei musicisti, che prevedeva atteggiamenti effeminati e ambigui, grande presenza scenica e sessualità.

Infatti, uno dei principali motivi per cui il glam non spopolò mai negli Stati Uniti fu perché gli artisti della corrente, suonavano intenzionalmente agli incontri di coppie, vestiti in modo bizzarro, con costumi androgini e makeup. Sostanzialmente, il glam rock si divideva in due scuole. La predominante fu quella capeggiata dai T. Rex di Marc Bolan, gruppo che diffuse il tipico look glamour, e la musica composta da temi sessuali, divertenti, leggeri e superficiali, basandosi quindi su una filosofia dove nella musica, la superficie era la sostanza.

Artisti come Gary Glitter, Sweet e Slade, seguendo l’estetica dei T. Rex, crearono una sottocategoria chiamata „glitter“ (che era esclusivamente britannico). Nonostante fosse uno stile che si basava soprattutto sull’immagine, parte del glam rock presentava anche un lato artistico, più introspettivo e sperimentale, in parte influenzato dalla scena progressive rock inglese, simboleggiato proprio da David Bowie e i Roxy Music. Questa scuola risultava molto più drammatica ed ambiziosa, sia a livello sonoro che lirico; il glam rappresentava per questi artisti un’opportunità di manipolare i loro personaggi, facendo dello stile parte del loro messaggio.

Tralasciando il glam britannico, uno tra i pochi gruppi glam rock americani furono i New York Dolls, caratterizzati da un grezzo proto-punk fortemente influenzato dai Rolling Stones, che li differenziava dai loro colleghi d’oltre oceano, ma che dal punto di vista estetico li accomunava. In effetti esistevano diverse band glam rock anche nel nuovo continente camera dry bag, come ad esempio Alice Cooper, i Kiss, i The Stooges di Iggy Pop. Tuttavia questi presentavano un’attitudine più violenta e oltraggiosa, tanto da non poter essere paragonati ai gruppi britannici. I primi due in particolare, erano esponenti di una particolare corrente chiamata shock rock, che faceva del forte impatto visivo il punto di forza, toccando temi ed esibizioni di carattere sessuale, violento, spesso macabro, ma anche ironico. Anche in questo senso, il „glam/shock“ di questi gruppi era notevolmente distinto dal glam romantico ed effeminato dei loro contemporanei, pertanto non tutti riconobbero la loro appartenenza alla scena glam.

Il glam ebbe effettivamente inizio con l’album dei T. Rex Electric Warrior del 1971, ma il 1972 fu l’anno che segnò la vera e propria ascesa del genere: i T. Rex consolidarono la loro popolarità con The Slider; David Bowie realizzò il classico Ziggy Stardust e produsse lo storico album All the Young Dudes dei Mott the Hoople; i Roxy Music pubblicarono il loro debutto omonimo; e i New York Dolls suonarono il loro primo tour in Inghilterra. Il picco del glam rock era stato superato già nel 1975, e molti dei suoi massimi esponenti cambiarono poi stile. Tuttavia, ebbe una grande influenza su molti giovani dell’epoca che poi divennero esponenti del punk rock britannico ed ebbero ancora più impatto sul successivo Post-punk.

Naturalmente, il glam rock fu estremamente importante anche per la nascita del pop metal anni ottanta, variante dell’heavy metal in chiave commerciale portata avanti da band come i Def Leppard, ma soprattutto dai gruppi del filone americano. Correlato a questo stile musicale fu poi il glam metal, che, proponendo le sonorità heavy metal (in particolare pop metal) e l’abbigliamento ispirato al glam rock, si presentò come l’erede del genere negli anni ottanta remington shaver battery, rappresentato da band come Mötley Crüe, Poison e Tigertailz, e trovando maggior sviluppo negli States. Spesso infatti il glam/hair metal anni ottanta, verrà confuso con il glam rock, nonostante i punti di contatto musicali siano marginali, ed in particolare le sonorità, facilmente distinguibili.


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Apr. 09.

Kamienice przy ul. Jana III Sobieskiego 8 i 10 w Sanoku


Kamienica przy ul. Jana III Sobieskiego 8 i 10 w Sanoku – dwie przylegające do siebie kamienice położone w Sanoku.

Decyzję o budowie pod koniec XIX wieku podjął inż. architekt Władysław Beksiński (1850-1929). W jednej połowie zamieszkiwała rodzina Beksińskich (posiadająca swój pierwotny i główny przy ul metal water jug. Jagiellońskiej), a druga połowa kamienicy została wynajęta i mieściło się w niej kasyno oficerskie c. i k. armii (odniesienie do tego znalazło się w książce Przygody dobrego wojaka Szwejka autorstwa Jaroslava Haška, gdzie jest mowa o działalności domu publicznego w kasynie).

Od 1900, wobec braków wystarczających pomieszczeń w działalności ówczesnego Państwowego Gimnazjum w Sanoku, zostały najęte do tych celów powierzchnie kamienicy Władysława Beksińskiego – sześć sal (ponadto analogicznie także kamienicy przy ul. Kazimierza Wielkiego 6 należącej do Karola Gerardisa). Lokale kamienicy służyły jako pokoje gościnne dla uczniów gimnazjum (wynajmował je sanocki Wydział Towarzystwa Pomocy Naukowej). Po wybuchu I wojny światowej wobec zajęcia budynku szkoły przez wojska najeźdźce (utworzono w nim szpital dla zakaźnie chorych), nauka była szczątkowo wznowiona od 1915 w m. in. w budynku kamienicy W. Beksińskiego (oraz K. Gerardisa).

W 1922 córka inżyniera, Władysława, wyszła za mąż za Franciszka Orawca fanny pack for runners, budynek stanowił jej wiano ślubne. Młoda para zamieszkała jednak w Poroninie football t shirts for boys. Druga połowa kamienicy została przekazana synowi, Stanisławowi. Przed II wojną światową obie kamienice miały numerację 4 (właścicielem był Stanisław Beksiński) i 6 (właścicielka była Władysława Orawiec); Stanisław Beksiński, zamieszkujący przy ul. Jagiellońskiej 41, był administratorem obu kamienic.

W 1939 do numeru 4 byli przypisani: Jan Ptyś, skup i eksport jaj, który prowadził Wolf Krämer, a do numeru 6 lekarz dr Włodzimierz Kuranowicz.

Podczas II wojny światowej w okresie okupacji niemieckiej w budynku pod numerem 8 przemianowanych nazw ulicy Sobieskistrasse, później Kasernenstrasse 8 działał Oberförsterei (Nadleśnictwo). W okresie lat 40. XX wieku w budynku zamieszkiwała Stanisława Praczyńska (matka Janiny i teściowa Antoniego Żubryd). W 1945 i 1946 funkcjonariusze Urzędu Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego aresztowali w budynku Stanisławę Praczyńską i kilkuletniego syna Żubrydów, Janusza.

W 2. poł. lat 50., w okresie PRL właścicielką kamienicy nr 4 była Stanisława Beksińska (żona zmarłego w 1953 Stanisława, matka Zdzisława), a właścicielem kamienicy pod numerem 6 był Jerzy Orawiec. W 1961 został zaplanowany remont kamienicy.

W 1961 proboszcz parafii Przemienienia Pańskiego w Sanoku ks. Antoni Porębski nabył od Jerzego Orawca kamienicę pod numerem 10. W budynku zamieszkiwali lekarze sanockiego szpitala: Nowosielski i Jan Zigmund (pod numerem 10, zajmował pięciopokojowe mieszkanie do śmierci w 1970), były proboszcz parafii, Adam Sudoł (po przejściu na emeryturę w 1995 camera dry bag, do śmierci w 2012). Podczas jego urzędowania obiekt został odremontowany. Od maja 1981, w czasie prac nad rozbudową przykościelnej plebanii, w kamienicy pod numerem 10 funkcjonowała kancelaria parafialna. 15 kwietnia 1989 plebania została przeniesiona do nowej siedziby przy ulicy Grzegorza z Sanoka 5. W 1994 i 1995 w budynku trwały prace remontowe.

Na parterze kamienicy pod numerem 10 w 1995 stworzono jedną z dwóch w Sanoku ochronek dla dzieci (Ochronka im. Błogosławionego Edmunda Bojanowskiego Zgromadzenia Sióstr Służebniczek NMP NP), które prowadzą siostry zakonne służebniczki starowiejskie.

Elewacja budynku posiada zdobienia, w tym godło Polski. Kamienica pod numerem 10 zyskała przydomek „Dom pod Białym Orłem” (tablica z tym napisem znajduje się na północnej elewacji na wysokości pierwszego piętra). W korytarzu istnieje sklepienie kolebkowe z lunetami.

Oba budynki, pod numerami 8 i 10, zostały wpisane do gminnej ewidencji zabytków Sanoka.


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Okt. 20.

Guy Bradley


Guy Morrell Bradley (April 25, 1870 – July 8, 1905) was an American game warden and deputy sheriff for Monroe County, Florida. Born in Chicago, Illinois, he relocated to Florida with his family when he was young. As a boy, he often served as guide to visiting fishermen and plume hunters, although he later denounced poaching after legislation was passed to protect the dwindling number of birds. In 1902, Bradley was hired by the American Ornithologists‘ Union, at the request of the Florida Audubon Society, to become one of the country’s first game wardens.

Tasked with protecting the area’s wading birds from hunters, he patrolled the area stretching from Florida’s west coast, through the Everglades, to Key West, single-handedly enforcing the ban on bird hunting. Bradley was shot and killed in the line of duty, after confronting a man and his two sons who were hunting egrets in the Everglades. His much-publicized death at the age of 35 galvanized conservationists, and served as inspiration for future legislation to protect Florida’s bird populations. Several national awards and places have been named in his honor.

Guy Bradley was born in Chicago, Illinois, in 1870. His family had strong ties to the city; his father, Edwin Ruthven Bradley, was born there in 1840, and two members of the family held high positions in Chicago’s law enforcement. Six years after Guy’s birth, the family relocated to Florida. After making their home in smaller towns, the family eventually settled in Fort Lauderdale, where Edwin became keeper of the Fort Lauderdale House of Refuge. Shortly after the death of Bradley’s sister Flora from an unknown illness—which also affected Guy, leaving him ill for several years—the family moved to the vicinity of Lake Worth. Edwin became a postman, earning an annual wage of six hundred dollars. He, with the help of his oldest son, later received national attention for being one of several barefoot mailmen, who operated until a road was constructed in 1892.

The family then relocated to Miami, where Edwin served as superintendent of the Dade County school district. In 1885, fifteen-year-old Guy and his older brother Louis served as scouts for noted French plume hunter Jean Chevalier on his trip to the Everglades. Accompanied by their friend Charlie W. Pierce, the men set sail on Pierce’s craft, the Bonton, ending their journey in Key West. At the time, plume feathers—selling for more than $20 an ounce ($501 in 2011)—were reportedly more valuable than gold. On their expedition, which lasted several weeks, the young men and Chevalier’s party killed 1,397 individual birds of thirty-six different species.

At the turn of the 20th century, vast numbers of birds were being killed in order to provide feathers to decorate women’s hats. The fashion craze, which began in the 1870s, became so prominent that by 1886 birds were being killed for the millinery trade at a rate of five million a year; many species faced extinction as a result. In Florida, plume birds were first driven away from the most populated areas in the northern part of the state pink strapless dress , and forced to nest further south. Rookeries concentrated in and around the Everglades area, which had abundant food and seasonal dry periods, ideal for nesting birds. By the late 1880s, there were no longer any large numbers of plume birds within reach of Florida’s most settled cities.

The most popular plumes came from various species of wading birds, known as „little snowies“ for their snowy-white feathers; even more prized were the „nuptial plumes“, grown during mating season and displayed by birds during courtship. Poachers often stole into the densely populated rookeries, where they would shoot and then pluck the roosting birds clean, leaving their carcasses to rot. Unprotected eggs became easy prey for predators, as were newly hatched birds, who also starved or died from exposure. One ex-poacher would later write of the practice, „The heads and necks of the young birds were hanging out of the nests by the hundreds. I am done with bird hunting forever!“

In the mid-1890s, Edwin became head of the Florida Coast Line Canal and Transportation Company and then the Model Land Company, both of which sold land for the railroads. In 1900, after twenty years living in Lake Worth, the family moved to Flamingo in Monroe County, near the Everglades. Edwin had heard that railroad tycoon Henry Flagler planned to build his railroad through the area, and that the then primitive city of Flamingo would flourish as a result; Flagler later changed his mind, deciding to build to Key West instead. Guy and his brother, who continued working as guides and hunters, each received a quarter of a mile of land on Florida Bay as part of their father’s deal with the Model Land Company. While working variously as a postman, farmer and boatman during his 20s, Guy continued to augment his income with an occasional plume hunt. In 1899, he married the young widow Sophronia („Fronie“) Vickers Kirvin from Key West. Their first child, Morrell, was born a year later.

When the Florida legislature passed the American Ornithologists‘ Union (AOU) model law to outlaw the killing of plume birds, this created a need for qualified and competent wardens to enforce it. Kirk Munroe, a friend of the Bradley family and a founding vice president of the Florida Audubon Society, recommended Guy for the position. Seen as different from the other „wild“ young men in Flamingo, Bradley was described as „pleasant, quiet… fair, with blue eyes, always whistling and a pretty good violinist… [a] social asset to the isolated, frontier community, clean-cut, reliable, courageous, energetic and conscientious“.

Bradley was at this time a reformed plume hunter, who had given up the profession after the passage of the Lacey Act of 1900. In a letter to William Dutcher, president of the Florida Audubon Society, Bradley wrote „I used to hunt plume birds, but since the game laws were passed, I have not killed a plume bird. For it is a cruel and hard calling not withstanding being unlawful. I make this statement upon honor.“ Soon after being accepted for the position, Bradley traveled to Key West to secure his appointment as both game warden and deputy sheriff, which gave him the authority to arrest those hunting illegally.

As one of the first game wardens, Bradley was responsible for reporting suspected poachers and the businesses with which they worked. He was paid a monthly stipend of $35 ($917 in 2010) to single-handedly patrol the enormous area stretching from the Ten Thousand Islands on Florida’s west coast, through the Everglades, to Key West, which served as nesting areas for popular plume birds such as egrets, herons, spoonbills and ibis. Bradley took his job seriously; he educated locals about the newly implemented laws which made plume hunting a punishable offense, spoke to hunters directly, and posted warning signs throughout his territory. He also set up a network of spies who watched for suspicious behavior, and employed his brother Louis and others close to him to work as assistant wardens during the height of the plume season.

In 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt created the first wildlife refuge in the United States, Pelican Island. Its first warden, Paul Kroegel, joined forces with Bradley to enforce the illegality of bird-hunting in Florida. By 1904, the various Audubon organizations had 34 wardens employed in ten states. Conservationist publications were optimistic that Bradley and other wardens would be successful in their enforcement; in AOU’s January 1904 issue of The Auk, an editor wrote: „The natives are beginning to realize that the birds are to be protected and that the wardens are fearless men who are not to be trifled with. The Bradleys have the reputation of being the best rifle shots in that vicinity and they would not hesitate to shoot when necessary.“

After accepting the position as game warden, however, Bradley became a vilified figure in southern Florida; working alone, with no reinforcements, he had been shot at more than once. In 1904, Bradley alerted visiting ornithologist and author Frank Chapman that one of the more isolated rookeries, called Cuthbert, had been „shot out“ despite previously having been found to be in good condition. He reportedly said, „You could’ve walked right around the Rookery on those bird’s bodies—between four and five hundred of them.“

Bradley took the slaughter to mean that he was being watched by local hunters, who only could have discovered the rookery by tracking his movements. Chapman later wrote, „Under his guardianship the ‚white birds‘ had increased in numbers, which, with aigrettes selling at $32 an ounce, made the venture worth the risk (for there was a risk; as the man who attempted to ’shoot out‘ a rookery while Bradley was on guard would probably have lost his own ‚plume‘); the warden watched and in his absence his charges were slaughtered.“

On July 8, 1905, Bradley heard gunshots close to his waterfront home in Flamingo. He set sail in his small skiff, and encountered a father and his two sons by the name of Smith, who were shooting up a rookery. The families had known each other for years, but Civil War veteran Walter Smith had a reputation for being troublesome, and Bradley had previously had altercations with him. He had arrested Smith on one occasion and Smith’s oldest son, Tom, twice for poaching. Smith threatened to retaliate against Bradley if he tried again, reportedly telling the warden, „You ever arrest one of my boys again, I’ll kill you.“

According to Walter Smith’s account, Bradley encountered the three men as they were loading dead plume birds onto their boat. An argument ensued, and as the warden attempted to arrest one of the young men, Smith opened fire with his hunting rifle, fatally wounding Bradley. His body was found the next day by his brother’s search party, after drifting 10 miles (16 km) from the scene of the crime. He had bled to death.

Smith set sail to Key West and turned himself in to the authorities the next day. Despite evidence found by the prosecution—paid for by the Florida Audubon Society—that Bradley had not fired his weapon, Smith claimed self-defense. He maintained that the warden had fired first, but missed, hitting Smith’s boat. Those who knew Bradley, however, insisted that he had been an excellent shot, and would not have missed his target had he, in fact, shot first. Smith later was found not guilty of murder, when the jury decided there was insufficient evidence to convict; he served only five months in jail, unable to pay $5,000 for bail. While he was incarcerated, Bradley’s two brothers-in-law burned down Smith’s Flamingo home.

Bradley’s death and Smith’s acquittal made national headlines; detailed stories ran in the New York Times, the New York Herald, the Philadelphia North American, and Forest and Stream. The warden’s wife and two young children were given a home in Key West, paid for by donations secured by the Florida Audubon Society. The Society, however, made no effort to replace Bradley, and his job as warden went unfilled. Bradley’s obituary, written by William Dutcher and published in August 1905’s edition of Bird Lore, characterized him as „fearless and brave.“ Dutcher eulogized Bradley by saying, „A faithful and devoted warden, who was a young and sturdy man, cut off in a moment, for what? That a few more plume birds might be secured to adorn heartless women’s bonnets. Heretofore the price has been the life of the birds, now is added human blood. Every great movement must have its martyrs, and Guy M. Bradley is the first martyr in bird protection.“

With no one to replace Bradley, lawlessness continued in the Everglades and rookeries were devastated for several more years. Frank Chapman remarked that „There is no community sufficiently law-abiding to leave a bank vault unmolested if it were left unprotected. We have given up. We can’t protect it, and the rookery will have to go.“ In November 1908, game warden and deputy sheriff of DeSoto County, Columbus G. McLeod, went missing near Charlotte Harbor. A month later, his boat was found weighted down and sunk; inside, police found the warden’s bloodstained hat, long gashes cut into the crown with what appeared to be an axe. It was suspected that he was killed by poachers. His body was never found and the perpetrators were not caught. Later that year, an employee of the South Carolina Audubon Society, Pressly Reeves, was shot and killed during an ambush by unknown assailants.

These three deaths within as many years helped end the commercial trade of feathers from Florida. In 1910, the New York legislature passed the Audubon Plumage Act, outlawing the plume trade; other states followed, and Congress soon banned the import of hats decorated with bird feathers. In time, the fashion craze for bird feathers faded. As the demand for plumage dwindled, thousands of birds returned to the Everglades rookeries; adventure writer Zane Grey wrote after visiting a creek near Cape Sable:

Though we saw birds everywhere, in the air and on the foliage, we were not in the least prepared for what a bend in the stream disclosed. Banks of foliage as white with curlew as if with heavy snow! With tremendous flapping of wings that merged into a roar, thousands of curlew took wing, out over the water. …It was a most wonderful experience.

Bradley was buried on a shell ridge at Cape Sable, overlooking Florida Bay. A nearby monument was erected by the Florida Audubon Society, reading: „Guy M. Bradley, 1870–1905, Faithful Unto Death, As Game Warden of Monroe County He Gave his Life for the Cause to Which He Was Pledged“. The grave and monument, however, were later washed away in 1960’s Hurricane Donna. The original gravestone was recovered, and is now on display at the Flamingo Visitor Center. A nearby plaque was also dedicated to Bradley’s memory, and reads: „Audubon warden was shot and killed off this shore by outlaw feather hunters, July 8, 1905. His martyrdom created nationwide indignation, strengthened bird protection laws and helped bring Everglades National Park into being.“

The story of Bradley’s defense of the Everglades‘ birds, and the manner of his death, has been depicted in both literature and film. Author Marjory Stoneman Douglas, who would later become famous for publicizing the need for conserving and restoring the Everglades, based the hero of her 1930 short story „Plumes“ on Bradley. The 1958 film Wind Across the Everglades, starring Christopher Plummer and Burl Ives, was loosely based upon Bradley’s life and death. Author Harvey Eugene Oyer III featured Guy Bradley and Charlie W. Pierce in „The Adventures of Charlie Pierce: The Last Egret“. Middle Rover Press, 2010 camera dry bag.

In 1988, the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation established the Guy Bradley Award to recognize achievements in wildlife law enforcement. The award is presented annually to two recipients, one state and one federal officer. Another honor, the Guy Bradley Lifetime Conservation Award, was established in 1997 by the Audubon Society Everglades Ecosystem Restoration Campaign to those who promote conservation and offer workable conservation solutions. A trail in the Everglades, leading from the Flamingo Visitor Center to the Flamingo Campground, also was named in Bradley’s honor.


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Okt. 03.

Sudogda


Sudogda (russisk: Су́догда) er en by i Vladimir oblast i Russland. Den ligger på venstre bredd av elva Sudogda (ei høyre sideelv til Kljazma), rundt 40 km sørøst for Vladimir. Innbyggertall: 13&nbsp camera dry bag;328 (folketelling 2002), 14 191 (folketelling 1989).

Bosetningen ble første gang nevnt i dokumenter på 1600-tallet som en sloboda kalt Sudogodskaja (russisk: Судогодская), senere kjent som landsbyen (selo) Sudogda. Bystatus ble innvilget i 1778 meat mallet definition.

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