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Mrz. 12.

André Castaigne


Jean Alexandre Michel André Castaigne (7 January 1861, Angoulême, Charente – 1929, Angoulême) was a French artist and engraver, a student of Jean-Léon Gérôme and Alexandre Cabanel. Subsequently he became a leading illustrator in the United States. He is often recalled as the original illustrator of the first edition of The Phantom of the Opera.

Castaigne also created more than 36 art pieces about Alexander the Great for an 1898–99 series. As an illustrator

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, he captured images of the first modern olympics; he drew pictures of the 1896 Olympic Games for Scribner’s Magazine.

André Castaigne was the son of Jean Eusèbe Joseph Castaigne (1828–1902), himself a painter, and Mathilde Debouchaud. His brother Joseph Jean Destrains Castaigne (1859–1923) was a poet. In 1878, he began his studies at what was then the Académie Suisse. After a few months he transferred to the Académie des Beaux-Arts where his two mentors taught tag football jerseys. He was in Cabanel’s studio for a year before moving to Gérôme’s studio where he won first place in the General Competition three times–for nude figure painting, composition, and general excellence. His work was selected for the Prix de Rome on three occasions and, although he never won, it was a compliment as only ten paintings were selected for the competition.

He had his first exhibition in Paris in 1884, from whence his painting Dante et Béatrice went on tour to New Orleans where it received a great deal of attention. In 1887 he exhibited the huge painting, five yards by four, The Deluge, which later was placed in the municipal gallery of his native city Angoulême. In 1888, he painted a portrait of the Vicomte de Dampierre in his hunting jacket and in 1889 he created a painting titled After the Combat, which later was acquired by the Peabody Gallery in Baltimore.

Castaigne spent six months in England, then went to the United States in 1890 and remained until 1895. He became director of an art school in Baltimore called the Charcoal Club and under his direction the school, which had been in decline, flourished and became one of the best art schools in the region. He painted several notable portraits the first year he was in America. In 1891, he began the illustrating work by which he is best known to the American public. His first work of this type was The Forty-Niners‘ Ball in the Century Magazine for May 1891, followed by The Bowery in December of the same year. These images of the West earned him immediate recognition as a master of a very American art form. After that he illustrated for several of the leading magazines. His designs included pictures of Texas cowboys in Scribner’s Magazine—On the Great Cattle Trail (1892), part of a series titled Cattle Trails of the Prairies and the World’s Fair drawings and illustrations for ‚Polly‘ in the Century Magazine. In 1893, he painted eight illustrations for an article by A cool soccer goalie gloves.C. Fletcher on the Omaha tribe in The Century. He illustrated B.I. Wheeler’s Life of Alexander the Great (1900), for which he did over 36 paintings and drawings from November 1898 to October 1899. His work for Century Magazine included travelling extensively, visiting Corsica (1894), Italy (1895, 1896), Greece (1897) and the Rhineland (1898) to illustrate travel articles by Augustine Birrell. For The Century he did over 160 illustrations. He also worked for Harper’s Magazine from 1901 to 1913. He was official painter for the Olympic Games in 1896.

On his return to France in 1895, he became instructor in the Académie Colarossi and opened a studio in Paris. He remained permanent European correspondent for The Century and made trips to the US from time to time to do American illustrations for the magazine. These include Mammouth Cave (1898) and Niagara Falls (1899) He also visited Canada at this time and produced Canadian Rapids from the Island. Little by little, photogravure replaced engraving and lithography and Castaigne no longer did travel pictures after around 1910. In France, he published Fata Morgana (1904), a novel dealing with the art life of Paris and illustrated by himself. During a six-year period in France where he divided his time between a winter studio in Paris and a summer studio in Angoulême, he illustrated William Milligan Sloane’s The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, Richard Whiteing’s Paris of To-Day and Bertha Runkle’s The Helmet of Navarre.

While in France, Castaigne was principal draughtsman to the President of France Félix Faure who awarded him the Red Ribbon of the Legion of Honour.

He died unmarried in 1929 at the Clinique St. Marthe in Angoulême where he had been admitted with a hernia. Due to complications as a result of not obeying medical orders and getting out of bed, this proved fatal.

Media related to André Castaigne at Wikimedia Commons


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Okt. 17.

Вульгарный материализм


Вульгарный материализм (нем. Vulgärmaterialismus, лат. vulgaris – обыкновенный, простой) — название, под которым известно философское течение в рамках материализма середины XIX в. Название принадлежит Фридриху Энгельсу.

Возникло в период великих открытий естествознания XIX в. Теоретическим предшественником вульгарного материализма был французский материалист П. Кабанис, главными представителями — немецкие учёные К. Фохт и Л. Бюхнер

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, голландец Я. Молешотт. Названные авторы занимались прежде всего медициной, анатомией и физиологией; философские занятия вытекали из их научно-биологической деятельности. На возникновение вульгарного материализма повлияли дарвиновская теория эволюции, открытие органической материи. Во многом течение явилось реакцией против немецкого идеализма.

Ф. Энгельс называл их вульгарными материалистами, так как они упрощали, с его точки зрения, материалистическое миропонимание, отрицали специфику сознания, отождествляя его с материей («мозг выделяет мысль, как печень выделяет желчь»; «нет мысли без фосфора»), отвергали необходимость разработки философии как науки. Человеческая личность объяснялась ими также физиологически («Человек есть то, что он ест» — Молешотт). Для общественной мысли этих авторов (особенно Бюхнера) характерен социальный дарвинизм. Вульгарный материализм популяризировал достижения естествознания и атеизм.

В России вульгарный материализм был достаточно популярен в 1860-е годы («физиологические картины» Фохта, Бюхнера и Молешотта переводил и реферировал Д. И. Писарев), хотя некоторые революционные демократы подвергали его критике. В романе Достоевского «Бесы» нигилисты рубят иконы и зажигают церковные свечи перед произведениями этих трёх авторов:

Подпоручик был ещё молодой человек, недавно из Петербурга, всегда молчаливый и угрюмый, важный с виду, хотя в то же время маленький, толстый и краснощёкий. Он не вынес выговора и вдруг бросился на командира с каким-то неожиданным взвизгом, удивившим всю роту

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, как-то дико наклонив голову; ударил и изо всей силы укусил его в плечо; насилу могли оттащить. Сомнения не было, что сошёл с ума, по крайней мере обнаружилось, что в последнее время он замечен был в самых невозможных странностях. Выбросил, например, из квартиры своей два хозяйские образа и один из них изрубил топором; в своей же комнате разложил на подставках, в виде трёх налоев, сочинения Фохта, Молешотта и Бюхнера, и пред каждым налоем зажигал восковые церковные свечки.

— Ф. М. Достоевский, «Бесы»

Тенденции вульгарного материализма были свойственны в СССР «механистам».

Мышление, характерное для вульгарного материализма, отразилось в литературе XIX века (таков по сути «научный подход» к героям в натурализме Золя).

Ж. О. Ламетри • П. А

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. Гольбах • П. Ж. Ж. Кабанис • А. Д. де Траси

К. Фохт • Л. Бюхнер • Я love football t shirt. Молешотт • Г. Кзольбе

Физиологические письма (1847) • Круговорот жизни (1852) • Слепая вера и наука (1854) • Новые представления о сенсационности (1855) • Сила и материя (1855)

Механицизм • Социал-дарвинизм • Нигилизм


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Sep. 26.

San Remigio, Cebu


San Remigio (local pronunciation: /sænrəˈmiːjoʊ/) is a 3rd municipal income class municipality in the province of Cebu, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 57,557. In the 2016 election, it had 37,122 registered voters.

San Remigio celebrates its annual fiestas on 15 and 16 May in honor of their patron saints, San Isidro Labrador and San Juan Nepomuceno. The parish had just had their 150th anniversary since it has been founded in the year 1864.

San Remigio was formerly known as „Kanghagas“, a kind of tree that grew there in abundance. When the Spanish conquistadores came, they identified a town site by clearing the kanghagas trees through self-help labor. Kanghagas was a part of barangay Punta

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Initially the visita of Kanghagas was within the jurisdiction of Bantayan. In 1850 Bogo established a parish

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, and the three barrios of Kanghagas, Lambusan and Victoria (Maarat) became under the civil governance of Bogo. Kangahagas was renamed Isabel after the queen of Spain. In 1864 these barrios establish a new parish named as San Juan Nepomuceno Parish (Redondo 1886, p. 165) and a new town was called San Remigio.

San Remigio comprises 27 barangays:

In the 2016 election, it had 37,122 registered voters, meaning that 64% of the population are aged 18 and over.

San Remigio has the longest shoreline of any municipality in Cebu. There are several beach resorts, as well as public beaches with long stretches of white sand.

Today, San Remigio has become a new diving destination. There are a few marine sanctuaries, with new dive sites being developed all the time. A PADI dive shop in San Remigio Beach Club caters to beginner and experienced divers who want to enjoy San Remigio’s marine life.

The port of Hagnaya offers a frequent ferry service to Bantayan Island.

The town of San Remigio has many public elementary and secondary schools. Secondary schools are San Remigio National High School, Dapdap National High School, Lambusan National High School, Libaong National High School, Jose Martinez Memorial (Gawaygaway) National High School, San Miguel National High School & Luyang National High School. Each barangay has an elementary and primary school.

(Administratively independent from the province but grouped under Cebu by the . Mandaue is grouped under the 6th legislative district of Cebu but still independent from the province.)


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Sep. 23.

Football Association of Ireland


The Football Association of Ireland (FAI; Irish: Cumann Peile na hÉireann) is the governing body for association football in the Republic of Ireland. It should not be confused with the Irish Football Association which is the governing body in Northern Ireland.

The FAI has an Executive Committee of five members under the President, who receive expenses, as well as a paid administrative staff led by the General Secretary Joe Murphy. The current chief executive is John Delaney who earns a salary of €340,000 a year. There is also a General Council of delegates who vote at the AGM. As well as the senior clubs, the General Council includes delegates from a variety of affiliated organisations:

Recent changes have been made to the organisational structure following the publication of the „Genesis II“ report (a non-independent report produced by and for the FAI, following the publication of the independent and highly critical Genesis report) of 2005. This includes the reorganisation of the national football league system in line with the recommendations.

The League of Ireland actually predated the FAI by three months. The FAI Cup was immediately established along the lines of the FA Cup and Scottish Cup competitions. A second cup competition was formed in 1974 called the League of Ireland Cup. The FAI Junior Cup and FAI Intermediate Cup are for non-League of Ireland teams. The Setanta Cup was inaugurated in 2005 as cross-border competition between FAI clubs from the League of Ireland and IFA clubs from the Irish League. There is also an Under 19 League of Ireland. The FAI President’s Cup, a game between the previous season’s League of Ireland and FAI Cup winners

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, was inaugurated in 2014.

The FAI also organises schools competitions, and international teams, including the senior team, underage teams, and the Olympic team.

The FAI was formed in Dublin in September 1921 by the Free State League (League of Ireland), founded the previous June, and the Leinster FA, which had withdrawn from the IFA in June. This was the climax of a series of disputes about the alleged Belfast bias of the IFA. The IFA had been founded in 1880 in Belfast as the governing body for football for the whole of Ireland, which was then a single part („Home Nation“) of the United Kingdom. The Leinster FA was an affiliate founded in 1892 to foster the game in Leinster, outside its Ulster heartland. In 1920, all but two clubs in the Irish League were based in Ulster, in what was to become Northern Ireland the following year. While this largely reflected the balance of footballing strength within Ireland, southern clubs felt the IFA was doing little to promote the game outside the professional clubs in its heartland. Elsewhere association football was under pressure from the Gaelic Athletic Association, which banned members from playing or watching association football as being a „foreign“ game. World War I increased the gulf as the Irish League was suspended and replaced by regional leagues, foreshadowing the ultimate split. The Belfast members were mainly unionist, while the Dublin members were largely nationalist.[citation needed] Tensions were exacerbated by the Irish War of Independence of 1919-21, which disrupted contact between northern and southern clubs and prevented resumption of the Irish League. The security situation prompted the IFA to order the April 1921 Irish Cup semi-final replay between Glenavon and Shelbourne to be replayed in Belfast, rather than Dublin as convention dictated. This proved the final straw.

Both bodies initially claimed to represent the entire island. The split between Southern Ireland (which in 1922 became the Irish Free State) and Northern Ireland did not produce a split in the governing bodies of other sports, such as the Irish Rugby Football Union. The Munster Football Association, originally dominated by British Army regiments, had fallen into abeyance on the outbreak of World War I, and was re-established in 1922 with the help of the FAI, to which it affiliated. The Falls League, based in the Falls Road of nationalist West Belfast, affiliated to the FAI, and from there Alton United won the FAI Cup in 1923. However, when the FAI applied to join FIFA in 1923, it was admitted as the FAIFS (Football Association of the Irish Free State) based on a 26-county jurisdiction. (This jurisdiction remains, although Derry City, from Northern Ireland, were given an exemption, by agreement of FIFA and the IFA, to join the League of Ireland in 1985.) Attempts at reconciliation followed: at a 1923 meeting, the IFA rejected an FAIFS proposal for it to be an autonomous subsidiary of the FAIFS. A 1924 meeting in Liverpool, brokered by the English FA, almost reached agreement on a federated solution, but the IFA insisted on providing the chairman of the International team selection committee. A 1932 meeting agreed on sharing this role, but foundered when the FAIFS demanded one of the IFA’s two places on the International Football Association Board. Further efforts to reach agreement were made through a series of conferences between the IFA and FAI from 1973 to 1980 during the height of the Northern Ireland Troubles.

The IFA did not feel obliged to refrain from selecting Free State players for its international team. The name Football Association of Ireland was readopted by the FAIFS in 1936, in anticipation of the change of the state’s name in the pending Constitution of Ireland, and the FAI began to select players from Northern Ireland based on the Constitution’s claim to sovereignty there. A number of players played for both the FAI „Ireland“ (against FIFA members from mainland Europe) and the IFA „Ireland“ (in the British Home Championship, whose members had withdrawn from FIFA in 1920). Shortly after the IFA rejoined FIFA in 1946, the FAI stopped selecting Northern players. The IFA stopped selecting southern players after the FAI complained to FIFA in 1950.

Therefore,

For many years, association football was largely confined to Dublin and a few provincial towns. In some towns the game had been started by British Army teams, leading to the derisory nickname the „garrison game“. Association football was played in relatively few schools: middle-class schools favoured rugby union while others favoured Gaelic games. From the late 1960s, association football began to achieve more widespread popularity. Donogh O’Malley, T.D., the then Minister for Education, began a new programme of state-funded schools in 1966, many with association football pitches and teams. The Gaelic Athletic Association’s ban on members playing „foreign“ games was lifted in 1971. RTÉ television, founded in 1962, and British television (available nearly everywhere on cable or microwave relay from the 1970s), broadcast association football regularly. Above all, the increasing success of the international side from the late 1980s gave increased television exposure, more fans, and more funds to the FAI.

However, increased media exposure also highlighted some inadequacies of its hitherto largely amateur organisation.

In January 1999, the FAI announced a planned national association football stadium, to be called Eircom Park after primary sponsors Eircom. This was to be a 45,000 seat stadium in City West, modelled on the Gelredome in Arnhem. It gradually became apparent that the initial forecasts of cost and revenue had been very optimistic. FAI and public support for project was also undermined by the announcement of the Stadium Ireland in Abbotstown, which would have 65,000 seats and be available free to the FAI, being funded by the state. The Eircom Park project was finally abandoned in March 2001, amid much rancour within the FAI.

The FAI made a joint bid with the Scottish FA to host the 2008 European Football Championship. This bid failed.

During preparation for the 2002 World Cup Black Runner Waist Pack, the captain of the senior football team, Roy Keane, left the training camp and returned to his home. He was critical of many aspects of the organisation and preparation of the team for the upcoming games, and public opinion in Ireland was divided. As a result of the incident, the FAI commissioned a report from consultants Genesis into its World Cup preparations. The „Genesis Report“ made a number of damning criticisms regarding corruption and cronyism within the association, but was largely ignored. The complete report was never published for legal reasons. The FAI subsequently produced its own report of itself titled „Genesis II“ and implemented a number of its recommendations.

In 2002, the FAI announced a deal with British Sky Broadcasting to sell broadcasting rights to Ireland’s international matches, as well as domestic association football, to be televised on its satellite subscription service. The general public felt it should be on RTÉ, the free-to-air terrestrial service, in spite of their offering much lower rates. Faced with the prospect of the government legislating to prevent any deal, the FAI agreed to accept an improved, but still lower, offer from RTÉ.

Following the respectable performance of the national team in the 2002 World Cup, the team’s fortunes have subsequently declined, under the management of Mick McCarthy and his successors, first Brian Kerr, and then Steve Staunton.

In September 2006, Lars-Christer Olsson, CEO of UEFA, was quoted as anticipating that Lansdowne Road in Dublin (actually owned by the Irish Rugby Football Union) would stage the UEFA Cup Final in 2010, and that the FAI and the IFA would co-host the 2011 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship. The 2010 final was ultimately awarded to Hamburg, but in January 2009, UEFA named Lansdowne Road as the host stadium for the renamed 2011 UEFA Europa League Final. In August 2010, an FAI spokesman said they will have repaid all of their stadium debt of €46 million within 10 years despite the disastrous sale of 10-year tickets for premium seats at the Aviva Stadium.

In November 2007 the FAI moved to new headquarters at the Sports Campus Ireland in Abbotstown. Its headquarters since the 1930s had been a Georgian terraced house at 80 Merrion Square, which was sold for a sum variously reported as „in excess of €6m“ and „almost €9m“.

*Delaney was interim CEO from 04-06

The Association’s structure can best be split into three sections: the FAI Council

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, The Board of Management and Committees, and the FAI Administration Staff.

The FAI Council is made up of 60 members from across the Irish football family. The Council elects the FAI’s President, a number of committee members and also pass major decisions. The Board of Management has ten members: the President, Vice President, Honorary Secretary, Honorary Treasurer, Chief Executive, and the six chairpersons of the Development (International, Domestic, League of Ireland, Legal/Corporate & Underage committees). The Finance committee is represented by the Honorary Treasurer rather than selecting a chairperson. A number of committee members elected by Council and a further number selected by the CEO, President and Council Representative (other than an officer). For balance within the committees, the person selected cannot be from the same affiliate as the person elected by council, while no one person can sit on more than two committees. The Chief Executive also sits as a voting member on the Finance and Legal and Corporate Affairs Committees.

The FAI has been involved in a number of scandals and controversies during its existence, the most famous being the „Merriongate“ controversy, which broke in 1996 when the media reported that in the 1990 and 1994 World Cups, the FAI had sought to acquire extra tickets for Ireland’s matches by exchanging tickets it had been allocated for other games; sometimes with the relevant FAs, but sometimes with ticket touts. The FAI was left with many unsold tickets and heavy losses from these transactions. („Merriongate“ refers to the FAI’s then-headquarters in Merrion Square, Dublin).

The 2007 season saw the FAI start a five-year term of running the League of Ireland after merging with the League. There was controversy over the manner in which clubs were allocated between the two divisions of the new League, as simple promotion and relegation from the previous season’s leagues was not used, but rather a weighting of results, infrastructure and finances.

In 2010 the FAI refused to sanction a high-profile friendly between Limerick F.C. and FC Barcelona in Thomond Park, at first citing a clash of fixtures, despite none of the games involving Limerick. It was later revealed that the reason for the refusal to sanction was due to an agreement the Association had in place whereby any game with a capacity of more than 20,000 had to be agreed with by a third-party, and that the FAI was in discussions about organising their own friendly with Barcelona (which the Catalan giants later refuted). When asked if Limerick could hold the friendly if they agreed to cap the attendance at 19,990, the FAI then informed the press that the limit in the contract was in fact 15,000. This apparent back-tracking, combined with abject media performances by John Delaney and Fran Gavin when attempting to justify the FAI decision, was seen as a further slap in the face for the League of Ireland, many of whose clubs were in serious financial danger.

Shortly before this scandal, the FAI announced the first association football game to take place in the Aviva Stadium was to be between Manchester United and an League of Ireland XI. When the announcement was made, it was mentioned that this game would potentially clash with a Bohemians Champions League qualifier, should the club progress. The FAI responded by announcing negotiations with UEFA about a fixture change, which flew in the face of their decision not to grant the Limerick game due to a fixture clash with other Irish clubs. It was also noted that the game was set up directly by the FAI and not the supposed third-party, despite the attendance being over 15,000. The game itself was seen as a humiliation for the League of Ireland, as the FAI looked to have turned their back once again on Irish clubs in order to accommodate Premier League fans.

After the Aviva Stadium curtain-raiser, the FAI announced that they had debts of €38 million, and had only sold 6,300 Vantage Club tickets from a projected 10,000. This was at a time when the Chief Executive, John Delaney, earned €430,000, double what 2010 League of Ireland Champions received in prize money. The figure of 6,300 was later questioned by an Irish Independent report which suggested in fact only 4,077 tickets had been sold, with as many as 1,000 of those 4,077 have been allocated to 10-year ticket holders, mainly taken by financial institutions who have not paid for the tickets since the project began.


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