Tag Archives: Glass Water Bottle

Apr. 12.

Nathalie Lake


Nathalie Lake är en sjö i Kanada. Den ligger i countyt Kenora District och provinsen Ontario, i den sydöstra delen av landet, 1 500 km väster om huvudstaden Ottawa. Nathalie Lake ligger 352 meter över havet. Arean är 0,35 kvadratkilometer. Den ligger vid sjön Gun Lake. Den högsta punkten i närheten är 389 meter över havet, 1,1 km sydväst om Nathalie Lake. Den sträcker sig 0

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,8 kilometer i nord-sydlig riktning, och 0,9 kilometer i öst-västlig riktning 7on7 football uniforms.

I övrigt finns följande vid Nathalie Lake:

I omgivningarna runt Nathalie Lake växer i huvudsak blandskog. Trakten runt Nathalie Lake är nära nog obefolkad, med mindre än två invånare per kvadratkilometer. Trakten ingår i den hemiboreala klimatzonen. Årsmedeltemperaturen i trakten är 1&nbsp meat tenderizers natural;°C. Den varmaste månaden är juli, då medeltemperaturen är 18 °C, och den kallaste är januari, med -18 °C small glass bottle. Genomsnittlig årsnederbörd är 862 millimeter. Den regnigaste månaden är juni, med i genomsnitt 131 mm nederbörd, och den torraste är november, med 38 mm nederbörd.


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Sep. 28.

Sjónvarp Símans


Sjónvarp Símans (formerly SkjárEinn) is an Icelandic television channel owned by Síminn. SkjárEinn broadcasts both Icelandic and foreign television shows. Since its foundation in 1999 it has aired crime white bracelets, drama, reality and comedy television series. It is distributed by analogue over-the-air broadcast signal and also digitally via Síminn and Vodafone IPTV and Vodafone Digital Ísland. SkjárEinn used to be free to anyone living in Iceland but switched to a premium subscription channel in 2009. In 2015, after Skipti, the former parent company of Síminn and Skjárinn, merged with Síminn, the channel switched to a mixed subscription model. Watching the linear broadcast is free but a subscription is required to access exclusive content such as TV shows before they air. On 1 June 2016, the channel’s name was changed from SkjárEinn to Sjónvarp Símans

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, to reflect the revolution the channel and Síminn itself had been through since the merger of Síminn and its sister companies handmade bracelets.


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Sep. 28.

Huilatherium


Huilatherium es un género de leontínido, mamíferos de pezuña pertenecientes al hoy extinto orden de los notoungulados, que comprenden otras familias de ungulados suramericanos que evolucionaron en cierto paralelismo con los mamíferos de otras partes del mundo para adaptarse a los nichos ecológicos del Cenozoico. Los leontínidos fueron una familia de herbívoros que comprendía especies de tamaño mediano a grande, especializada en una dieta ramoneadora, con cráneos relativamente cortos y extremidades robustas, un poco similares a sus parientes, los mejor conocidos toxodóntidos

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Huilatherium fue descubierto en Colombia, en el yacimiento fósil de La Venta en el departamento de Huila, al que debe su nombre (que traduce „bestia del Huila“), con una única especie conocida hasta ahora, H. pluriplicatum. Esta especie fue inicialmente descrita de un maxilar izquierdo con dientes deciduos de un ejemplar joven, que fue reportado por Jane Colwell en 1965 como posible leontínido, al cual le aplicó el nombre científico de „Laventatherium hylei“ („bestia de La Venta“), pero dado que ella realizó su descripción en una tesis de maestría y nunca lo publicó, los autores Villarroel y Guerrero Díaz ignoraron dicho reporte y volvieron a describir el material

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, esta vez como Huilatherium, que pese a ser una denominación posterior a „Laventatherium“ queda como nombre oficial dado que el primero no satisface las reglas de la ICZN para publicación de nombres científicos.

Descripciones posteriores de la especie reportaron material adicional como otros fragmentos craneales, dientes y piezas postcraneales, que muestran que era un animal de hasta 500 kilogramos de peso, uno de los mayores de su tipo y que vivió a mediados del Mioceno

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, hace unos 12 millones de años (edad-mamífero del Laventense), resultando especialmente notorio por ser el último y más especializado miembro conocido de su familia. En los leontínidos, se presenta una progresiva tendencia a la especialización de la dentadura, en la que en esta se van desarrollando más los incisivos y aparece un diastema. En Huilatherium, los dientes caninos se reducen de tamaño, reduciéndose el número de dientes anteriores y desarrollando incisivos similares a caninos. Sus características indican un cercano parentesco al leontínido Taubatherium paulacoutoi, procedente del Oligoceno de la formación Tremembé en Brasil con el que conforman un clado apartado de otras especies de la familia, conocidas primordialmente de sitios del Paleógeno argentino y que indicaría como esta familia se vio desplazada hacia el norte tropical a medida que los cambios climáticos iban desapareciendo los medios arbolados de los que dependían.

(en inglés)


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Sep. 27.

Nora Nicholson


Nora Nicholson (7 December 1892 – 18 September 1973) was an English actress. Known for her portrayal of character roles, she achieved her greatest success in the later years of her career. She played in classics by Shakespeare and Chekhov and in new plays by authors including Noël Coward and Alan Bennett. Many of her best-regarded performances were as eccentric or even unhinged characters.

In 1914 Nicholson joined the Old Vic company, where she played several Shakespearean roles

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, and during 1916 and 1917, she played Sally in a long tour of The Scarlet Pimpernel. From the 1920s to the 1940s, she played a variety of character roles on stage in England, France and North America. She achieved wider notice in the West End in 1947 for her role in Dark Summer and was admired in both London and New York in The Lady’s Not for Burning in 1949/50. She continued to be in demand for her stage roles into the 1970s.

From the 1950s she made regular television appearances and is probably best remembered for her part in the BBC’s The Forsyte Saga (1967)

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. She appeared in many British films, mostly comedies, but also in more serious films, including A Town Like Alice (1956). She continued to act until the year of her death.

Nicholson was born in Leamington, Warwickshire, the youngest child of the large family of the Rev John Aldwell Nicholson and his wife Editha, née Hunt. She was educated at Leamington High School. where a fellow student was a daughter of the actor Frank Benson. After further education in Germany, Nicholson joined Benson’s drama school before becoming a member of his company in 1912.

In April 1912 Nicholson made her professional stage debut, playing Dolly Clandon in Benson’s production of Shaw’s You Never Can Tell at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon. She remained with Benson’s company throughout the 1912/13 season, and in 1914 she joined the Old Vic company playing Ariel in The Tempest, Titania in A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Jessica in The Merchant of Venice and Celia in As You Like It.

During 1916 and 1917 Nicholson toured as Sally in Fred Terry’s stage version of The Scarlet Pimpernel, after which she served in the Women’s Royal Naval Service, 1918–19. When she returned to the theatre after the war her career, according to her obituarist in The Times, „took a long time to develop“.

Between the wars Nicholson was constantly typecast in character parts that suited „her frail, eager, bright-eyed figure“. She had a few outstanding roles, among which were Charlotta, the governess, in The Cherry Orchard (1925), Mrs Debenham in the Broadway production of Rope (1929)

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, and Miss Trafalgar Gower in Trelawny of the Wells at the Old Vic (1938). Between these productions she played in London and on tour in England and Canada in a range of plays from Shakespeare to new drama. Among her more unusual productions during this period was a stage adaptation of The Well of Loneliness, banned in Britain and presented at the Théâtre de la Potinière in Paris in 1930.

During the Second World War Nicholson was a member of the Oxford Playhouse company, where she played one of her two favourite parts of her career, Mrs Boyle in Juno and the Paycock. She achieved local celebrity, but remained a lesser name in the West End. This changed in 1947, when her portrayal of a genteelly acid spinster in Wynyard Browne’s Dark Summer established her as a leading character actress. Throughout the rest of her career Nicholson was cast in a succession of striking stage roles, including Margaret in The Lady’s Not for Burning (1949, London, and 1950, New York), Miss Teresa in Graham Greene’s The Living Room (New York, 1954), Ivy in The Family Reunion (1956), Sarita in Waiting in the Wings (1960), Avdotya Nazarovna in John Gielgud’s production of Ivanov (1965), and Miss Nisbitt in Forty Years On (1968). Her last stage appearance was as the nurse in A Doll’s House in 1973.

Nicholson was in demand for television and cinema work. She is probably best known as Juley Forsyte in the BBC’s The Forsyte Saga (1967). Earlier she had played Clarissa Spenlow in a serial adaptation of David Copperfield (1956) and Miss Flyte in Bleak House (1959). Her last television role was in 1973 as Catherine Alan in an adaptation of A Room with a View. Her cinema films included Tread Softly (1952), Raising a Riot (1955), A Town Like Alice (1956)

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, The Captain’s Table (1959), Law and Disorder (1958), The Captain’s Table (1959) and Say Hello to Yesterday (1970).

In 1973 Nicholson published an autobiography, described by The Times as „quietly witty and generous“. She died in London in the same year, at the age of eighty.


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Sep. 26.

Moncho Monsalve


José Manuel Monsalve Fernández

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, meglio noto come „Moncho“ Monsalve (Medina del Campo, 1º gennaio 1945), è un ex cestista e allenatore di pallacanestro spagnolo.

Moncho Monsalve esordì nella stagione 1962-1963 al Club Atlético San Sebastián. Passo poi al Real Madrid nel 1963-1964, rimanendovi fino al 1966-1967. Nella stagione successiva militò nel KAS Bilbao/Vitoria rimanendovi, squadra per la quale giocò fino al 1970. Terminò la sua carriera da giocatore nel Club Bàsquet Sant Josep, nel 1970-1971.

Dal momento che la stagione 1971/72 inizia una nuova fase come allenatore attiva, fino al 2001/02 che treni Cantabria Lobos. Attualmente sviluppa in alto per programmi di miglioramento del giocatore nella Federazione di basket spagnola.

È stato anche allenatore della Nazionale Svizzera, Repubblica Dominicana e Marocco

Vanta 65 presenze con la maglia della nazionale spagnola.

Ha iniziato la sua carriera di allenatore nel 1972 a Mataro Barcelona. Ha diretto altri club spagnoli come il FC Barcelona, CAI Zaragoza, Murcia CB, CB Málaga, OAR Ferrol, nonché in Italia brevemente nel 1982 il Basket Mestre, poi Nautica Tenerife, Valladolid e Castiglia, recentemente, il Lobos Cantabria. E le selezioni della Repubblica Dominicana, Tunisia

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, Svizzera e combinata sub’21 Marocco.

Ha guidato selezioni come il Marocco, Svizzera, Brasile e Repubblica Dominicana per Clubs come CAI Zaragoza e Cantabria Lobos, un esperto di spagnolo Basketball Federation dove conduce le promesse del Team B e commentatore televisivo.

Ha fatto parte dell’Ufficio Tecnico della Federazione Pallacanestro spagnola.

Fino al 2010 era l’allenatore di basket del Brasile, ma non è riuscito a qualificarsi per le Olimpiadi Pechino, le qualificazioni olimpiche di essere eliminata ad Atene. La realizzazione più recente è stata valutata Monsalve prima squadra in Brasile, che ha portato tra il 2007 e il 2009, per la Turchia del Mondo 2010. Proprio nel 2009, Monsalve ha conquistato la medaglia d’oro al Torneo delle Americhe, che gli diede il biglietto per le finali.

Nel dicembre 2010 la sua carriera è stato riconosciuto con il premio Raimundo Saporta in onore della sua carriera dall’Associazione spagnola degli allenatori (AEEB).

Nel febbraio 2011 ha firmato con il Club Sameji, di Santiago nella Repubblica Dominicana, per condurre la squadra nel Senior Tournament Santiago. Si è dimesso dopo aver subito la terza sconfitta.


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Sep. 25.

Lygia Bojunga Nunes


Lygia Bojunga (born 26 August 1932) is a Brazilian writer of children’s books under the name Lygia Bojunga Nunes. She is one of three people to win the two major international awards: for „lasting contribution to children’s literature“, she received the Hans Christian Andersen Medal in 1982. For her career contribution to „children’s and young adult literature in the broadest sense“ she won the Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award in 2004.

A major element of her books is the usage of the child’s point of view.

Lygia Bojunga is part of the tradition of magical realism and fantasy-filled storytelling of South America, a tradition she has developed and perfected. In her word of mouth-style narratives, characterised by a strongly dramatic presence, anything can happen. In a deeply original way she fuses playfulness, poetic beauty and absurd humour with social critique, a love of freedom and a strong empathy with the vulnerable child. Fantasy often functions as a way of dealing with distressing personal experiences, or as an escape from harsh reality. Bojunga enables the reader to enter directly into the dreams of her principal characters and to share in their experiences.

Bojunga was born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil in 1932. She worked on TV and radio until her first book was published in 1972. Having begun her career as an actress (she has also written a number of plays), she published her first children’s book, Os Colegas, in 1972 (The Companions, 1989). Here, as in Angélica (1975), the main characters are animals endowed with human characteristics, a device that highlights the comic elements in the narrative. These early works already reveal a psychological focus: Angélica is about a pig that wants to be a swallow, but gradually learns to accept its own identity. A Bolsa Amarela (1976), highlights a similar theme, this time with a young girl in the leading role, whereas A Casa da Madrinha (1978) presents the utopian dreams and fantasies of an abandoned street child

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. Two of her books deal with mourning and grief: her masterpiece, Corda Bamba (1979), is about a young girl who manages to come to terms with the death of her parents through her fantasies, and in O Meu Amigo Pintor, 1987 (My Friend the Painter, 1991), a young boy reflects on the inexplicable suicide of an adult friend

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In books such as Seis Vezes Lucas (1995), Bojunga writes in an altogether more realistic style. In her latest work, Retratos de Carolina (2002), her continual experimentation as a writer has led her in a new direction: she allows us to follow the main character from childhood through to adulthood in a narrative partly written in the form of a meta-novel. Bojunga uses this device to extend the boundaries of literature for children and young people in an attempt, as she herself puts it, to make room both for herself and the characters she has created in one single house

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, „a house of my own invention“.

Translations of Bojunga’s works have been published in many languages including English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Norwegian, Swedish, Icelandic, Bulgarian, Czech and Hebrew.

The biennial Hans Christian Andersen Award conferred by the International Board on Books for Young People is the highest recognition available to a writer or illustrator of children’s books. Jansson received the writing award in 1966. The Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award from the Swedish Arts Council, which she won in 2004, is the biggest prize in children’s literature.

Beside the Andersen and Lindgren Awards she has a number of others including the Jabuti Award (1973) and the Rattenfänger Literaturpreis (1986).


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Sep. 24.

Frank Macfarlane Burnet


Frank Macfarlane Burnet (født 3. september 1899 i Traralgon, Victoria, død 31. august 1985 i Port Fairy, Victoria) var en australsk lege, virolog og nobelprisvinner.

Sammen med Peter Medawar ble han tildelt Nobelprisen i fysiologi eller medisin i 1960 for sitt arbeide med bakteriofager og virus

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Burnet ble tildelt Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award i 1952, og ble også innvalgt som utenlandsk medlem av Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien i 1957.

1951: Theiler | 1952: Waksman | 1953: Krebs / Lipmann | 1954: Enders / Weller / Robbins | 1955: Theorell | 1956: Cournand / Forßmann / Richards | 1957: Bovet | 1958: Beadle / Tatum / Lederberg | 1959: Ochoa / Kornberg | 1960: Burnet / Medawar | 1961: von Békésy | 1962: Crick / Watson / Wilkins | 1963: Eccles / Hodgkin / Huxley | 1964: Bloch / Lynen | 1965: Jacob / Lwoff / Monod | 1966: Rous / Huggins | 1967: Granit / Hartline / Wald | 1968: Holley / Khorana / Nirenberg | 1969: Delbrück / Hershey / Luria | 1970: Katz / von Euler / Axelrod | 1971: Sutherland, Jr

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. | 1972: Edelman / Porter | 1973: von Frisch / Lorenz / Tinbergen | 1974: Claude / de Duve / Palade | 1975: Baltimore / Dulbecco / Temin

· · · · · · · · ·


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Sep. 07.

Hans Julius Wolff (historien du droit)


Hans Julius Wolff ( à Berlin – à Fribourg-en-Brisgau) est un juriste allemand, considéré comme l’un des plus importants historiens du droit, dont les recherches ont porté en particulier sur le droit dans la Grèce antique.

Issu d’une famille juive fort cultivée, il fit des études juridiques et passa son doctorat en 1932 à l’université Humboldt de Berlin. L’arrivée au pouvoir des nazis et les lois l’empêchèrent de continuer sa carrière universitaire. En 1935 l’Association d’aide aux savants allemands à l’étranger lui permit d’émigrer au Panama où il enseigna jusqu’à fin des années 1930 à l’université nationale. En 1939 il émigra aux États-Unis où il paracheva ses études aux universités du Tennessee et du Michigan puis enseigna à partir de 1945 dans différentes universités du Middle West et, après 1950, à l’université d’Oklahoma.

De retour en Allemagne en 1952, Hans Julius Wolff enseigna le droit romain d’abord à Mayence puis

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, à partir de 1955 comme professeur titulaire de droit grec, de droit romain et de droit civil à l’université de Fribourg-en-Brisgau où il mit en place l’enseignement du droit de la Grèce ancienne. Il centra ses recherches sur le droit attique dans l’Antiquité et le droit de l’époque des Ptolémées tel que le laissaient voir les papyrus grecs d’Égypte. En 1972 l’université d’Athènes le nomma docteur honoris causa. En 1974-1975 il devint membre de la School de l’Institute for Advanced Study à Princeton, dans le New Jersey.

Juif à l’origine, il se convertit par la suite au protestantisme et plus tard au catholicisme.


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Jun. 10.

Rzut poziomy (fizyka)


Rzut poziomy – ruch w jednorodnym polu grawitacyjnym z prędkością początkową prostopadłą do kierunku pola. Torem ruchu jest parabola o wierzchołku w punkcie rzutu.
Odpowiada on ruchowi ciała rzuconego poziomo w polu grawitacyjnym Ziemi, z pewnej wysokości, przy założeniu braku oporu ruchu i prędkości znacznie mniejszej od I prędkości kosmicznej

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. Wówczas pole grawitacyjne Ziemi można uznać w przybliżeniu za jednorodne.
Na ciało działa stała siła F o jednakowym kierunku i zwrocie na całym torze ruchu, który przyjmuje się za oś Y układu współrzędnych, jest to kierunek pionowy. Aby uniknąć znaków minus wygodnie jest przyjąć zwrot tej osi w dół. Oś prostopadłą do pola, a zgodną z kierunkiem rzutu oznacza się X, jest to kierunek poziomy.
Siła rozłożona na składowe zgodne z kierunkami osi:
Zgodnie z zasadami dynamiki siły te wywołują przyspieszenia:
Z powyższego wynika, że rzut poziomy może być traktowany jako złożenie dwóch ruchów:
Prędkości składowe wyrażają wzory:
Wartość prędkości całkowitej wyraża wzór:
Współrzędne położenia ciała w dowolnej chwili wyrażają równania ruchu:
Równania te są równaniami parametrycznymi, gdzie parametrem jest czas t.
Równanie ruchu y = f(x) ciała:
jest równocześnie równaniem toru ruchu. Jest to równanie paraboli.
Ciało rzucone z wysokości h (w chwili upadku y = h), parametry rzutu:
gdzie:


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Jun. 09.

Japanese-Language Proficiency Test


The Japanese-Language Proficiency Test (日本語能力試験, Nihongo Nōryoku Shiken?), or JLPT, is a standardized criterion-referenced test to evaluate and certify Japanese language proficiency for non-native speakers, covering language knowledge, reading ability, and listening ability. The test is held twice a year in Japan and selected countries (on the first Sunday of July and December), and once a year in other regions (on the first Sunday of December).
The JLPT consists of five levels. Until 2009, the test had four levels, with 4 being the lowest and 1 being the highest level of certification. JLPT certificates do not expire or become invalid over time.

The JLPT was first held in 1984 in response to growing demand for standardized Japanese language certification. Initially 7,000 people took the test. Until 2003, the JLPT was one of the requirements for foreigners entering Japanese universities. Since 2003, the Examination for Japanese University Admission for International Students (EJU) is used by most universities for this purpose; unlike the JLPT, which is solely a multiple-choice exam, the EJU contains sections which require the examinee to write in Japanese.
In 2004, the JLPT was offered in 40 countries, including Japan. Of the 302,198 examinees in that year, 47% (around 140,000) were certified for their respective level. The number of candidates continued to rise to 559,056 in 2008, while the percentage of candidates certified has fallen below 36%. In 2009, when a revised system was introduced in which two exams are held each year in East Asia, a total of 768,114 people took the exam. In 2010, 610,000 people took the test.
In Japan, the JLPT is administered by the Ministry of Education through the Japan Educational Exchanges and Services (JEES). Overseas, the Japan Foundation co-proctors test administration with local cultural exchange and/or educational institutions, or with committees specially established for this purpose.
The revised test pattern was implemented in 2010. The test consists of five levels: N1, N2, N3, N4, and N5, with N1 being the highest level and N5 the lowest. No Test Content Specification is published as it is discouraged to study from kanji and vocabulary lists.
Reading
One is able to read writings with logical complexity and/or abstract writings on a variety of topics, such as newspaper editorials and critiques, and comprehend both their structures and contents. One is also able to read written materials with profound contents on various topics and follow their narratives as well as understand the intent of the writers comprehensively.
Listening
One is able to comprehend orally presented materials such as coherent conversations, news reports, and lectures, spoken at natural speed in a broad variety of settings, and is able to follow their ideas and comprehend their contents comprehensively. One is also able to understand the details of the presented materials such as the relationships among the people involved, the logical structures, and the essential points.
Reading
One is able to read materials written clearly on a variety of topics, such as articles and commentaries in newspapers and magazines as well as simple critiques, and comprehend their contents. One is also able to read written materials on general topics and follow their narratives as well as understand the intent of the writers.
Listening
One is able to comprehend orally presented materials such as coherent conversations and news reports, spoken at nearly natural speed in everyday situations as well as in a variety of settings, and is able to follow their ideas and comprehend their contents. One is also able to understand the relationships among the people involved and the essential points of the presented materials.
Reading
One is able to read and understand written materials with specific contents concerning everyday topics. One is also able to grasp summary information such as newspaper headlines. In addition, one is also able to read slightly difficult writings encountered in everyday situations and understand the main points of the content if some alternative phrases are available to aid one’s understanding.
Listening
One is able to listen and comprehend coherent conversations in everyday situations, spoken at near-natural speed, and is generally able to follow their contents as well as grasp the relationships among the people involved.
Reading
One is able to read and understand passages on familiar daily topics written in basic vocabulary and kanji.
Listening
One is able to listen and comprehend conversations encountered in daily life and generally follow their contents, provided that they are spoken slowly.
Reading
One is able to read and understand typical expressions and sentences written in hiragana, katakana, and basic kanji.
Listening
One is able to listen and comprehend conversations about topics regularly encountered in daily life and classroom situations, and is able to pick up necessary information from short conversations spoken slowly.
Passing is based on scaled scores – raw scores are not directly used to determine passing, nor are they reported, except in rough form in the „Reference Information“ section. Raw scores are converted to a standard scale, so that equivalent performance on tests from different years and different levels of difficulty yields the same scaled score. The scaled scores are reported, broken down by section, and these are the scores used to determine passing.
In addition, a „Reference Information“ section is provided on the report card; this is purely informational – for the examinee’s future studies – and is not used in determining if an examinee has passed. The grade given is based on the raw score, and is either A, B, or C, accordingly as the raw score was 67% or above, between 34% and 66%, or below 34%. This reference information is given for vocabulary, grammar, and reading on the N4 and N5, and for vocabulary and grammar (but not reading) on the N1, N2, and N3. In both cases, this breaks down the score on the „Language Knowledge“ section into separate skills, but in neither case is performance on the listening section analyzed.
Passing the test requires both achieving an overall pass mark for the total points, and passing each section individually; these are based on the scaled scores. The sectional scores are to ensure that skills are not unbalanced – so one cannot pass by doing well on the written section but poorly on the listening section, for instance. The overall pass mark depends on the level and varies between 100/180 (55.55%) for the N1 and 80/180 (44.44%) for the N5. The pass marks for individual sections are all 19/60 = 31.67% – equivalently, 38/120 = 19/60 for the large section on the N4 and N5. Note that the sectional pass levels are below the overall pass level, at 31.67% instead of 44.44%–55.55%: one need not achieve the overall pass level on each section. These standards were adopted starting in July 2010, and do not vary from year to year, with the scaling instead varying.
Study hour comparison data published by the Japanese Language Education Center:
(e.g. speakers of Chinese or Korean)
(no prior kanji knowledge)
The application period is usually around early March until late April for July’s examination and around early August until late September for December’s exam.
Results for the December test are announced the following February for examinees in Japan, and March for overseas candidates. Test results are sent to the examinees through the testing organization or centre to which they applied. From 2012, with online registration, results are available online before they are mailed out (late August for the July test). All examinees receive a report indicating their scores by section. Those who pass also receive a Certificate of Proficiency.
Until 2009, the test had four levels. JLPT certificates do not expire or become invalid over time.
All instructions on the test were written in Japanese, although their difficulty is adjusted to remain appropriate to each test level. The subject matter covered at each level of the examination was based upon the Test Content Specification (出題基準, Shutsudai kijun?), first published in 1994 and revised in 2004. This specification served as a reference for examiners to compile test questions, rather than as a study guide for candidates. It consisted of kanji lists, expression lists, vocabulary lists, and grammar lists for all four JLPT levels

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. However, about 20% of the kanji, vocabulary, and grammar in any one exam may have been drawn from outside the prescribed lists at the discretion of exam compilers.
Numbers in parentheses indicate the exact number in the Test Content Specification.
The independent source the Japanese Language Education Center publishes the following study hour comparison data:
(e.g. speakers of Chinese or Korean)
(no prior kanji knowledge)
In its previous format, the JLPT was divided into three sections: „Characters and Vocabulary“ (100 points), „Listening Comprehension“ (100 points), and „Reading Comprehension and Grammar“ (200 points).
The first section (文字・語彙, moji, goi) tests knowledge of vocabulary and various aspects of the Japanese writing system. This includes identifying the correct kanji characters for given situations, selecting the correct hiragana readings for given kanji, choosing the appropriate terms for given sentences, and choosing the appropriate usage of given words.
The second section (聴解, chōkai) comprises two sub-sections that test listening comprehension. The first involves choosing the picture which best represents the situation presented by a prerecorded conversation. The second is of a similar format but presents no visual clues.
Section three (読解・文法, dokkai, bunpō) uses authentic or semi-authentic reading passages of various lengths to test reading comprehension. Questions include prompts to fill in blank parts of the text and requests to paraphrase key points. Grammar questions request that examinees select the correct grammar structure to convey a given point or test conjugations and postpositional particle agreement.
Two changes in levels of tests were made from the previous four-level format: firstly, a new level was inserted between the old level 3 and level 2, and secondly, the content of the top level exam (old level 1) was changed to test slightly more advanced skills, though the passing level was not changed, possibly through equating of test scores. Vocabulary in particular is said to be taken from an increased pool of 18,000 words.
The addition of the new N3 was done to address the problem of the difficulty gap between level 3 and 2: in the past there had been requests for revisions to address the fact that examinees who had passed the Level 3 test often had trouble with passing the Level 2 test because of the large gap in level of skill needed to pass those two levels. There was also a desire to measure abilities more advanced than those targeted by the current Level 1 test, hence the top level exam was modified.
The correspondence is as follows:
The revised test continues to test the same content categories as the original, but the first and third sections of the test have been combined into a single section. Sections on oral and writing skills were not introduced. Further, a requirement to pass individual sections was added, rather than only achieving an overall score.


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