Okt. 19.

## Quatre libertés

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Les quatre libertés (en anglais the four freedoms) sont les libertés, au nombre de quatre, que le président des États-Unis Franklin Delano Roosevelt a présentées comme fondamentales dans son discours sur l’état de l’Union prononcé le — devenu célèbre sous le nom de Discours des quatre libertés (The Four Freedoms speech) — et dont selon lui les êtres humains devraient pouvoir jouir partout dans le monde :

Les deux premières libertés reprennent celles énoncées par le Ier amendement de la Constitution américaine. Les deux dernières, le droit à la sécurité économique et une vision internationaliste de la politique étrangère, sont devenues les pivots de la doctrine libérale américaine moderne.

« In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms.

The first is freedom of speech and expression — everywhere in the world.

The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way — everywhere in the world.

The third is freedom from want — which, translated into world terms cheap mens football shirts, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants — everywhere in the world.

The fourth is freedom from fear — which 1 liter glass water bottle, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor — anywhere in the world.

That is no vision of a distant millennium. It is a definite basis for a kind of world attainable in our own time and generation. That kind of world is the very antithesis of the so-called new order of tyranny which the dictators seek to create with the crash of a bomb. »

(source : )

« Dans les jours à venir, que nous cherchons à rendre sûrs, nous entrevoyons un monde fondé sur quatre libertés essentielles.

La première est la liberté de parole et d’expression — partout dans le monde.

La deuxième est la liberté de chacun d’honorer Dieu comme il l’entend — partout dans le monde.

La troisième consiste à être libéré du besoin — ce qui, sur le plan mondial, suppose des accords économiques susceptibles d’assurer à chaque nation une vie saine en temps de paix pour ses habitants — partout dans le monde.

La quatrième consiste à être libéré de la peur — ce qui, sur le plan mondial, signifie une réduction des armements si poussée et si vaste, à l’échelle planétaire, qu’aucune nation ne se trouve en mesure de commettre un acte d’agression physique contre un voisin — n’importe où dans le monde.

Il ne s’agit pas là de vues concernant un millénaire éloigné. C’est la base précise du genre de monde à la portée de notre temps et de notre génération. Ce monde est l’antithèse même du prétendu nouvel ordre tyrannique que les dictateurs cherchent à instaurer en faisant exploser une bombe. »

La Charte de l’Atlantique, déclaration faite conjointement par Roosevelt et le Premier ministre britannique Winston Churchill le , reprend et complète le discours de quatre libertés prononcé quelques mois plus tôt.

Le concept des quatre libertés a également influé sur la Charte des Nations unies adoptée le . Il a ensuite été repris dans le préambule de la Déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme adoptée le par l’Organisation des Nations unies, sous l’inspiration de la Première dame Eleanor Roosevelt qui, après la mort de son mari, s’est impliquée à l’ONU et dans la rédaction de cette déclaration :

« […] the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people […] »

« […] l’avènement d’un monde où les êtres humains seront libres de parler et de croire, libérés de la terreur et de la misère, a été proclamé comme la plus haute aspiration de l’homme […] »

Les quatre libertés ont également inspiré un drapeau qui a représenté l’ONU de manière non officielle à ses débuts where can i buy a lint shaver, avant l’adoption du drapeau officiel. Les quatre libertés étaient représentées par quatre bandes verticales de couleur rouge, verte ou bleue, séparées par des bandes blanches.

Le concept des quatre libertés a inspiré à Norman Rockwell un ensemble de quatre tableaux, chacun d’eux représentant l’une des libertés. Ils ont été publiés dans quatre numéros consécutifs du Saturday Evening Post, les , , et , accompagnés d’essais sur les quatre libertés.

Parmi les références aux quatre libertés dans la culture populaire Fuzz Remover, on trouve :

Sep. 28.

## Richard Pasco

Richard Edward Pasco, CBE (18 July 1926 – 12 November 2014) was a British stage, screen and TV actor.

Pasco was born in Barnes, London, the son of Phyllis Irene (née Widdison) and Cecil George Pasco. He was educated at the King’s College School

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, Wimbledon. He became an apprentice stage manager at the Q Theatre, before studying at the Central School of Speech and Drama, where he won the gold medal. He then spent three years with the Birmingham Repertory Company.

One of his earliest screen appearances was as Teddy in Room at the Top (1959) Fuzz Remover. His other films include Sword of Sherwood Forest (1960), The Gorgon (1964) and Rasputin, the Mad Monk (1966), all for Hammer Studios.

During his lengthy stage career, which began in 1943, he worked with the Old Vic, the Royal Court, the Royal Shakespeare Company and the National Theatre. Pasco played the part of Frank Rice in the original stage production of John Osborne’s play The Entertainer (1957) with Laurence Olivier. One of his most memorable performances was in John Barton’s 1974 production of Richard II for the RSC (alternating the title role and that of Bolingbroke with Ian Richardson). Among his radio successes were his performances of BBC Radio 4’s Morning Story for BBC Pebble Mill producer David Shute. His TV credits include the role of Brutus in Julius Caesar and the „melancholy“ Jacques in As You Like It (1979) by William Shakespeare in the BBC’s Shakespeare cycle. Pasco played the leading part of Stephen Sorrell in the 1984 TV mini-series ‚Sorrell and Son‘

His later work includes Mrs. Brown (1997), the Inspector Morse episode „Dead on Time“, A Dance to the Music of Time (1997), and Hetty Wainthropp Investigates (1998). He died aged 88 on 12 November 2014.

Sep. 25.

## Liste der olympischen Medaillengewinner aus Italien/D–L

Zurück zur Liste der olympischen Medaillengewinner aus Italien

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Sep. 11.

## Finite-difference frequency-domain method

The finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method is a numerical solution method for problems usually in electromagnetism and sometimes in acoustics, based on finite-difference approximations of the derivative operators in the differential equation being solved.

While „FDFD“ is a generic term describing all frequency-domain finite-difference methods, the title seems to mostly describe the method as applied to scattering problems. The method shares many similarities to the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method so much of the literature on FDTD can be directly applied. The method works by transforming Maxwell’s equations (or other partial differential equation) for sources and fields at a constant frequency into matrix form



A

x

=

b

{\displaystyle Ax=b}

. The matrix A is derived from the wave equation operator, the column vector x contains the field components, and the column vector b describes the source. The method is capable of incorporating anisotropic materials, but off-diagonal components of the tensor require special treatment.

Strictly speaking

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, there are at least two categories of „frequency-domain“ problems in electromagnetism. One is to find the response to a current density J with a constant frequency ω

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, i.e. of the form



J

(

x

)

e

i

ω

t

{\displaystyle \mathbf {J} (\mathbf {x} )e^{i\omega t}}

, or a similar time-harmonic source. This frequency-domain response problem leads to an



A

x

=

b

{\displaystyle Ax=b}



A

x

=

λ

x

{\displaystyle Ax=\lambda x}

(usually, the eigenvalue λ is ω2). An early description of an FDTD method to solve electromagnetic eigenproblems was published by Albani and Bernardi (1974).

The FDFD method is very similar to the FDTD method; though, there are some major differences. Unlike the FDTD method there are no time steps that must be computed sequentially, thus making FDFD easier to implement. This might also lead one to imagine that FDFD is less computationally expensive; however, this is not necessarily the case. The FDFD method requires solving a sparse matrix, which for even simple problems can be 20,000 by 20,000 elements or larger, with over a million unknowns. In this respect the FDFD method is similar to the finite element method, which is a finite integral method and usually it is also implemented in the frequency domain. There are efficient numerical solvers available so that matrix inversion—an extremely computationally expensive process—can be avoided. And model order reduction techniques can be employed to reduce problem size.

FDFD, and FDTD for that matter, does not lend itself well to complex geometries or multiscale structures, as the Yee grid is restricted mostly to rectangular structures. This can be circumvented by either using a very fine grid mesh (which increases computational cost), or by approximating the effects with surface boundary conditions. Non uniform gridding can lead to spurious charges at the interface boundary, as the zero divergence conditions are not maintained when the grid is not uniform along an interface boundary. E and H field continuity can be maintained to circumvent this problem by enforcing weak continuity across the interface using basis functions, as is done in FEM. Perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary conditions can also be used to truncate the grid, and avoid meshing empty space.

The FDFD equations can be rearranged in such a way as to describe a second order equivalent circuit, where nodal voltages represent the E field components and branch currents represent the H field components. This equivalent circuit representation can be extremely useful, as techniques from circuit theory can be used to analyze or simplify the problem and can be used as a spice-like tool for three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. This susceptance element equivalent circuit (SEEC) model has the advantages of a reduced number of unknowns, only having to solve for E field components, and second order model order reduction techniques can be employed.

The FDFD method has been used to provide full wave simulation for modeling interconnects for various applications in electronic packaging. FDFD has also been used for various scattering problems at optical frequencies.

Finite-difference time-domain method

Finite element method

Sep. 11.

## Metenolone

Metenolone (brand names Primobolan, Nibal) or methenolone, also known as methylandrostenolone Fuzz Remover, is a long-acting anabolic steroid with weak androgenic (testosterone-like) properties. It is a naturally occurring drug, found within the adrenal glands of pregnant domesticated felines Short sleeve Football Jerseys, and is supplied as the acetate ester for oral administration and as the enanthate ester for intramuscular injection. Adult doses for the treatment of aplastic anemia are usually in a range of 1–3 mg/kg per day.

Adverse side effects include fluid and electrolyte retention, hypercalcaemia, increased bone growth and skeletal weight. In men, additional side priapism, azoospermia, hirsutism, male pattern baldness, acne and oedema. In women, side effects include virilization, amenorrhoea, menstrual irregularities, suppressed lactation, and increased libido. In children, side effects may include virilization symptoms. Metenolone may enhance effects of antidiabetics, ciclosporin, levothyroxine, warfarin. Resistance to the effects of neuromuscular blockers may occur, and metenolone also has the potential to interfere with glucose tolerance and thyroid function tests.

As an anabolic steroid, the use of metenolone is banned from use in sports governed by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Belarusian shot putter Nadzeya Ostapchuk was stripped of her gold medal after testing positive for metenolone at the London 2012 Olympic Games.

The NBA and NBPA also banned the use of methenolone under the Anti-Drug Program. In February 2013, Hedo Türkoğlu of the Orlando Magic was suspended for 20 games without pay by the league after testing positive for methenolone.

In December 2013, Natalia Volgina was stripped of her 2013 Old Mutual Two Oceans Marathon title and received a two-year competition ban, subsequent to a final guilty verdict for using the steroid Metenolone.

Sep. 06.

## Reeve tetrahedron

In geometry, the Reeve tetrahedron is a polyhedron, named after John Reeve, in



R

3

{\displaystyle \mathbb {R} ^{3}}

with vertices at



(

0

,

0

,

0

)

{\displaystyle (0,0,0)}

,



(

1

,

0

,

0

)

{\displaystyle (1,0,0)}

,



(

0

,

1

,

0

)

{\displaystyle (0,1,0)}

, and



(

1

,

1

,

r

)

{\displaystyle (1,1,r)}

where



r

{\displaystyle r}

is a positive integer. Each vertex lies on a fundamental lattice point (a point in



Z

3

{\displaystyle \mathbb {Z} ^{3}}



R

3

{\displaystyle \mathbb {R} ^{3}}

or higher-dimensional spaces. This is seen by noticing that Reeve tetrahedra have the same number of interior and boundary points for any value of



r

{\displaystyle r}

, but different volumes.

The Ehrhart polynomial of the Reeve tetrahedron



T

r

{\displaystyle {\mathcal {T}}_{r}}

of height



r

{\displaystyle r}



r

13

{\displaystyle r\geq 13}

, the Ehrhart polynomial of



T

r

{\displaystyle {\mathcal {T}}_{r}}

has a negative coefficient.

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