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Feb. 27.

Timeline of early HIV/AIDS cases


This article is a timeline of early AIDS cases.

An AIDS case is classified as „early“ if the death occurred before 5 June 1981, when the AIDS epidemic was formally recognized by medical professionals in the United States.

Human blood samples from 1959 and 1960 from Kinshasa, the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the Congo River, led scientists to extrapolate the virus back to the early 1900s, likely around 1908 in Africa.[medical citation needed] Around that time the virus may have been transmitted from another species.[medical citation needed] Paralleling the HIV discoveries, primate researchers found Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), which was widespread among many species of chimpanzees.[medical citation needed]

In 2006, scientists reported the origin of HIV came from a species of chimpanzees that were „penned in“ a 100-square-mile section of Cameroon bracketed by the Boumba River to the west, the Sangha River to the east, „this patch of tropical forest is sealed into an inland peninsula to the south by the Ngoko River.“[medical citation needed] One hypothesis is that a Bantu hunter became infected while processing a chimpanzee.[medical citation needed] In the early 1900s the area was experiencing an upheaval as the German Empire took over the land in 1884, naming the colony Kamerun.[medical citation needed] The hypothesis follows that the infected hunter would have visited or moved to a more densely populated area and passed the infection on via sexual contact.[medical citation needed]

Using the same virus tracing technologies, scientists extrapolate about a „chimp patient zero“ that existed within a million years ago, although it is likely impossible to further limit the time frame.[medical citation needed] This chimp would have had to have eaten SIV-infected monkeys from two distinct species, a red-capped mangabey, and a spot-nosed guenon.[medical citation needed] Normally these viruses would have been defeated separately, or never interacted.[medical citation needed] But in „chimp zero“, a relatively rare occurrence of pieces of the two viruses combined and thrived, leading to the virus that later was introduced to humans and became one virus.[medical citation needed] Scientists have found a dozen HIV strains spread from chimps, monkeys, and gorillas, but one is responsible for the majority of the human infections causing a high percentage of the almost 36 million people who have died as of 2014.[medical citation needed] The research is being used to study the prevention of other „patient zero“ events with other viruses.[medical citation needed]

The strain of HIV viruses most closely related to the lineage of HIV-1 subgroup M (responsible for the global pandemic) may have first emerged in the 1920s in Kinshasa, then part of the Belgian Congo buy stainless steel water bottle. A team of scientists from the universities of Oxford and Leuven concluded this „estimated location of pandemic origin“ in 2014 by applying computational methods of evolutionary analysis to archived samples of HIV’s genetic code.[medical citation needed]

Earlier, it had been estimated from the genetic differences of the ZR59 and DRC60 samples that HIV-1 subgroup M had jumped to humans in 1908 ± 10 years.

Sadayo Fujisawa, a sixty-year-old Japanese-Canadian chiropractor-masseuse-midwife, died on 28 June 1945 of pneumocystis pneumonia with Human cytomegalovirus (CMV), diarrhea, and wasting, a group of symptoms which some authors conclude would have led to an automatic diagnosis of AIDS in the early 1980s. The British writer Edward Hooper argues that it was not a case of AIDS based on polymerase chain reaction tests by Dr. Serge Jothy and Fergal Hill performed on slides from Mrs. Sadayo’s autopsy and that were not able to find HIV by 1993’s standards.[Unreliable fringe source?]

Richard Edwin Graves Jr., a 28-year-old World War II veteran who had been stationed in the Solomon Islands, died on 26 July 1952 in Memphis, Tennessee with pneumocystis pneumonia, CMV and what some authors suggest are a sufficient number of opportunistic infections for a clinical course suggestive of an AIDS diagnosis. Again, by contrast, Hooper disagrees (p. 146), citing Lester Wold, the chair of pathology at the Mayo Clinic, and Sebastian Lucas, an AIDS specialist, to suggest that Graves died of HTLV-1 and Non-Hodgkins lymphoma.[unreliable medical source?]

Until 2008, the earliest known sample of HIV-1 was from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (formerly Zaïre, formerly Belgian Congo). The sample, named ZR59, was isolated from tissues collected from „a Bantu male“ in 1959 and was found with retrospective genetic analysis to be most closely related to subtype D strains. In 2008, partial HIV viral sequences were identified from a specimen of lymph node collected from an adult female in Kinshasa, DRC in 1960. This specimen, named DRC60, was around 88% similar to ZR59, but was found to be most closely related to subtype A HIV-1 strains. These specimens are significant not only because they are the oldest specimens of the virus known to cause AIDS, but because they show that the virus already had an extensive amount of genetic diversity in 1960. This suggests the virus had either undergone recombination or been circulating for years or perhaps decades in the Kinshasa population.

Notable potential individual cases of AIDS from this period include:

David Carr: (Contested, see below

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.) A Manchester printer (sometimes mistakenly referred to as a sailor) who died 31 August 1959 following the failure of his immune system; he succumbed to pneumonia. Doctors, baffled by what he had died from, preserved 50 of his tissue samples for inspection. In 1990, the tissues were found to be HIV-positive. However, in 1992, a second test by AIDS researcher David Ho found that the strain of HIV present in the tissues was similar to those found in the late 1980s rather than an earlier strain (which would have mutated considerably over the course of 30 years). Ho’s discovery has cast doubt on David Carr’s death being caused by AIDS.[medical citation needed]

Ardouin Antonio, a 49-year-old Haitian, has been suggested as a possible early AIDS case. Antonio had emigrated to the United States in 1927, and at the time of death was working as a shipping clerk for a garment manufacturer in Manhattan. He developed similar symptoms to David Carr’s, and died on 28 June 1959, apparently of the same very rare kind of pneumonia as Carr. Many years later, Dr. Gordon R. Hennigar, who had performed Antonio’s autopsy, was asked whether he thought his patient had died of AIDS; he replied „You bet … It was so unusual at the time. Lord knows how many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS. I think it’s such a strong possibility that I’ve often thought about getting them to send me the tissue samples.“ Some doctors disagree. Edward Hooper disputes this in his book, „The River“ based on a PCR performed (by 1993’s standards) by Fergal Hill.[Unreliable fringe source?]

Robert Rayford: A 16-year-old boy who died in 1969, described as the first case of AIDS in the United States, though critics[who?] argue the testing in this case should not be regarded as definitive.

Researchers drew blood from 75 children in Uganda to serve as controls for a study of Burkitt’s lymphoma. In 1985, retroactive testing of the frozen blood serum indicated that 50 of the children had antibodies to a virus related to HIV.

Arvid Noe: Arvid Darre Noe (an anagram of his birth name Arne Vidar Røed) was a Norwegian sailor and truck driver who was probably infected in Cameroon some time between 1962 and 1965, and died on 24 April 1976, three months after his daughter. Tissues of Røed, his wife and daughter all tested positive for HIV in an epidemiology study in 1988.

Grethe Rask: A Danish surgeon who traveled to Zaïre in 1972 to aid the sick. She was likely directly exposed to blood from many Congolese patients, one of whom infected her. She returned to Denmark in late 1976, with her colleagues baffled by her symptoms. She died in December 1977. Her tissues were examined and tested positive by her colleagues in 1987.

Senhor José (English: Mr. Joseph): A Portuguese man who is the first confirmed case of HIV-2. He was believed to have been exposed to the disease in Guinea-Bissau in 1966. He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases by Professor Anthony Bryceson until finally succumbing to the disease in 1978.

Herbert Heinrich: German concert violinist who died in 1979. Tests in 1989 found that he was HIV-positive, and there has been speculation that he was infected by a prostitute who was infected by Røed, but as of 1997, this had not been proven.


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Feb. 07.

Motorsport Arena Oschersleben


Coordinate:

La Motorsport Arena Oschersleben è un autodromo tedesco situato pochi chilometri a est della città di Oschersleben (Bode), non molto distante da Magdeburgo, nel territorio che una volta apparteneva alla Repubblica Democratica Tedesca customised football shirts.

Inaugurato nel 1997, a pochi anni dalla sua costruzione è già diventato uno dei più importanti circuiti automobilistici della Germania, in quanto vi si disputano gare del mondiale turismo (WTCC), del DTM (Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters) e del FIA GT. Dal 2000 al 2004 ha ospitato anche il Campionato mondiale Superbike, che ora fa tappa al Lausitzring

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Realizzato su un terreno pianeggiante, il suo disegno alquanto contorto ne fa un circuito piuttosto lento. Può essere suddiviso in sezioni indipendenti e l’unica modifica che ha subito è stata la riprofilatura della prima curva, trasformata in una secca curva a gomito di 90° per favorire i sorpassi nelle gare automobilistiche. Le motociclette, invece, usano ancora la configurazione originale. Ha una lunghezza di 3.667 metri (per le moto) o di 3.696 metri (per le auto) e una larghezza che va da 11 a 13 metri.

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Jul. 23.

Ernst Otto Fischer


Ernst Otto Fischer (Solln, 10 november 1918 – München, 23 juli 2007) was een Duitse chemicus aan wie in 1973 de Nobelprijs voor de Scheikunde werd toegekend voor zijn baanbrekende werk op het gebied van de organometaalchemie. Samen met Geoffrey Wilkinson is Fischer pionier van de zogenaamde sandwichverbindingen – de binding van een metaalatoom aan organische moleculen.

Fischer werd geboren in Solln bij München op 10 november 1918. Zijn ouders waren Karl Tobias Fischer (1871-1953), hoogleraar natuurkunde aan de Technische Universiteit München, en Valentine Danzer. Na zijn eindexamen in 1937, moest hij twee jaar in militaire dienst waarna de Tweede Wereldoorlog uitbrak. Tijdens de oorlog diende hij in Polen, Frankrijk en Rusland, maar hij kon in 1941 tijdens een verlofperiode zijn scheikundestudie aan de TU München beginnen. Na een kort Amerikaans krijgsgevangenschap, hervatte hij zijn studie scheikunde in 1945, die hij afsloot in 1949.

Hij werkte aan zijn dissertatie als een assistent bij professor Walter Hieber in de anorganische chemie. Na zijn promotie in 1952 vervolgde hij zijn werk aan organometaalverbindingen en werd hij uiteindelijk in 1964 na verschillende andere aanstellingen aan de TU München, benoemd tot hoogleraar anorganische chemie aan de TU München.

Fischer werkte met name aan metaalcomplexen van cyclopentadienylen, indenylen, olefinen, arenen en carbonylen. Hij ontwikkelde een nieuwe methodologie voor het combineren van metalen en organische substanties – de chemie van organometallische verbindingen – en de ontwikkeling van sandwichverbindingen van transitiemetalen. De eerste sandwichverbinding die gemaakt werd was ferroceen (Fe(C5H5)2), waarbij het tweewaardige ijzeratoom zich tussen de vlakken van twee cyclopentadienylringen bevindt. Fischer slaagde later er ook in sandwichverbindingen te maken met andere metalen en andere moleculen, zoals benzeen.

In 1960 werd in zijn groep een klasse van alkylidenen en alkylidynen ontdekt die tegenwoordig met Fischer-carbenen worden aangeduid.

Fischer heeft vele prijzen gekregen voor zijn werk. Hij deelde in 1973 de Nobelprijs voor de Scheikunde met Geoffrey Wilkinson voor zijn werk aan organometaalverbindingen. Fischer was jarenlang actief in het hoofdcomité en senaat van de Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), de Deutschen Akademischen Austauschdienst (DAAD) en in de raad van toezicht van het Deutsches Museum. Hij was mede-oprichter (1964) en decennialang regionaal editor van het internationaal gerenommeerde vakblad „Journal of Organometallic Chemistry„. De altijd ongetrouwd gebleven Fischer overleed in 2007.

1901: van ‚t Hoff · 1902: E. Fischer · 1903: Arrhenius · 1904: Ramsay · 1905: Baeyer · 1906: Moissan · 1907: Buchner · 1908: Rutherford · 1909: Ostwald · 1910: Wallach · 1911: Curie · 1912: Grignard, Sabatier · 1913: Werner · 1914: Richards · 1915: Willstätter · 1918: Haber · 1920: Nernst · 1921: Soddy · 1922: Aston · 1923: Pregl · 1925: Zsigmondy · 1926: Svedberg · 1927: Wieland · 1928: Windaus · 1929: Harden, Euler-Chelpin · 1930: H.Fischer · 1931: Bosch, Bergius · 1932: Langmuir · 1934: Urey · 1935: F.Joliot-Curie, 1973: E.O.Fischer, Wilkinson · 1974: Flory · 1975: Cornforth, Prelog · 1976: Lipscomb · 1977: Prigogine · 1978: Mitchell · 1979: Brown, Wittig · 1980: Berg, Gilbert, Sanger · 1981:&nbsp professional football jerseys;Fukui, Hoffmann · 1982: Klug · 1983: Taube · 1984: Merrifield · 1985: Hauptman, Karle · 1986: Herschbach, Lee, Polanyi · 1987: Cram, Lehn, Pedersen · 1988: Deisenhofer, Huber, Michel · 1989: Altman, Cech · 1990: Corey · 1991: Ernst · 1992: Marcus · 1993: Mullis, Smith · 1994: Olah · 1995: Crutzen, Molina, Rowland · 1996: Curl, Kroto, Smalley · 1997: Boyer, Walker, Skou · 1998: Kohn, Pople · 1999: Zewail · 2000: Heeger, MacDiarmid, Shirakawa · 2001:&nbsp

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Feb. 10.

Itinéraire d’un enfant gâté


Pour plus de détails, voir Fiche technique et Distribution

Itinéraire d’un enfant gâté est un film français réalisé par Claude Lelouch et sorti en 1988.

Jean-Paul Belmondo, également producteur, remporta le César du meilleur acteur 1989 pour son rôle.

Enfant trouvé élevé dans le milieu du cirque, Sam Lion a dû faire une reconversion forcée après un accident de trapèze et est devenu chef d’entreprise. Mais la cinquantaine passée, il se lasse de ses responsabilités et de son fils, Jean-Philippe

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, dont la collaboration ne lui est pas d’un grand secours. Il décide alors de disparaître en mer. Mais son passé va le rattraper en la personne d’Albert Duvivier, un de ses anciens employés. Il se perd, puis prend peu à peu conscience de l’essentiel de sa vie.

Le tournage a eu lieu à Cologne, San Francisco, Paris (dont devant la butte Montmartre), Singapour, au Zimbabwe et en Polynésie française.

La musique du film est de Francis Lai, collaborateur régulier de Claude Lelouch depuis Un homme et une femme en 1966. Il a également composé deux chansons originales touch football uniforms, sur des paroles de Didier Barbelivien : Qui me dira? et Itinéraire d’un enfant gâté.

Le label Play Time a sorti un coffret „Francis Lai Anthology“ en avril 2016 contenant la musique originale et restaurée du film.

Sorti en salles fin novembre 1988 en France, Itinéraire d’un enfant gâté rencontre un succès commercial, avec 3 254 397 entrées infant soccer socks, dont 780 074 à Paris, marquant aussi le dernier grand succès au cinéma de Jean-Paul Belmondo glass water bottle filter, qui avait essuyé un échec commercial avec Le Solitaire en 1987.

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :


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Sep. 28.

Richard Pasco


Richard Edward Pasco, CBE (18 July 1926 – 12 November 2014) was a British stage, screen and TV actor.

Pasco was born in Barnes, London, the son of Phyllis Irene (née Widdison) and Cecil George Pasco. He was educated at the King’s College School

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, Wimbledon. He became an apprentice stage manager at the Q Theatre, before studying at the Central School of Speech and Drama, where he won the gold medal. He then spent three years with the Birmingham Repertory Company.

One of his earliest screen appearances was as Teddy in Room at the Top (1959) Fuzz Remover. His other films include Sword of Sherwood Forest (1960), The Gorgon (1964) and Rasputin, the Mad Monk (1966), all for Hammer Studios.

During his lengthy stage career, which began in 1943, he worked with the Old Vic, the Royal Court, the Royal Shakespeare Company and the National Theatre. Pasco played the part of Frank Rice in the original stage production of John Osborne’s play The Entertainer (1957) with Laurence Olivier. One of his most memorable performances was in John Barton’s 1974 production of Richard II for the RSC (alternating the title role and that of Bolingbroke with Ian Richardson). Among his radio successes were his performances of BBC Radio 4’s Morning Story for BBC Pebble Mill producer David Shute. His TV credits include the role of Brutus in Julius Caesar and the „melancholy“ Jacques in As You Like It (1979) by William Shakespeare in the BBC’s Shakespeare cycle. Pasco played the leading part of Stephen Sorrell in the 1984 TV mini-series ‚Sorrell and Son‘

His later work includes Mrs. Brown (1997), the Inspector Morse episode „Dead on Time“, A Dance to the Music of Time (1997), and Hetty Wainthropp Investigates (1998). He died aged 88 on 12 November 2014.


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Sep. 28.

Robert Riddles


Robert Arthur „Robin“ Riddles, CBE, MIMechE, MinstLE (23 May 1892 – 18 June 1983) was a British locomotive engineer.

Riddles was born in 1892 and entered the Crewe Works of the London and North Western Railway as a premium apprentice in 1909, completing his apprenticeship in 1913. While attending the Mechanics Institute classes he took a course in electrical engineering

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, feeling there would be a future for electric traction. During the 1914–18 Great War he served with the Royal Engineers mainly in France, during which time he was badly wounded.

He returned to the LNWR at Crewe, and in 1920 became the „bricks and mortar assistant“ with responsibility for the new erecting shop. When work on this was stopped, Riddles was placed in charge of a small production progress department and was sent to Horwich to study the methods used by the L&Y. From this Riddles gained some backing, and had significant influence in the re-organisation of Crewe which took place between 1925 and 1927. In 1923 the LNWR became part of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway thus on completion of the work at Crewe, Riddles was sent to the ex-Midland Railway works at Derby Runner Waist, now part of the LMS

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, to initiate a similar arrangement. In this task he had the active support of the then Derby works manager, H. G. Ivatt.

During the General Strike in 1926 Riddles volunteered as a driver, taking trains from Crewe to Manchester and Carlisle. The experience gained made him almost unique among CMEs; Riddles maintained that the practical knowledge of driving a locomotive that he gained was an invaluable aid to his design work.

In 1933 Riddles moved to Euston to become Locomotive Assistant to the new Chief Mechanical Engineer, Sir William Stanier, and in 1935 became Stanier’s Principal Assistant. In 1937 Riddles moved to Glasgow as Mechanical & Electrical Engineer – Scotland, the first to combine both engineering disciplines in a single title. However Riddles was disappointed that C. E. Fairburn was at this time appointed as Stanier’s Deputy.

In 1939 with the Second World War having just started, he moved to the Ministry of Supply, becoming Director of Transportation Equipment, and later designed the WD Austerity 2-8-0 and WD Austerity 2-10-0 locomotives.

In 1943 he moved to the post of Chief Stores Superintendent at the LMS – it has been said that he was anxious to get back into the railway business. On the death of Charles Fairburn in 1944 he applied for the position of Chief Mechanical Engineer, but the job went to George Ivatt, with Riddles being promoted to Vice-President of the LMS.

Upon the creation of the Railway Executive in 1947 in preparation for the nationalisation of the railways in 1948, he was appointed Member of the Railway Executive for Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. He had two principal assistants, both of whom were also former LMS men: Roland C. Bond, Chief Officer (Locomotive Construction and Maintenance), and E. S. Cox

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, Executive Officer (Design). The duties of these three effectively covered the old post of Chief Mechanical Engineer; they subsequently oversaw the design of the British Railways (BR) standard classes.

Riddles retired in 1953 on the abolition of the Railway Executive, and became a director of Stothert & Pitt of Bath, cranemakers.

Riddles was succeeded as Chief Mechanical Engineer of BR by J.F. Harrison.


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