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Feb. 03.

Holmes v. Ford

Holmes v. Ford was an American court case in the Oregon Territory that freed a slave family in the territory in 1853. The decision re-affirmed that slavery was illegal in the territory as outlined in the Organic Laws of Oregon that were continued once the region became a U.S cheap footy shirts. territory. In the decision, Chief Justice of the Oregon Territorial Supreme Court George H. Williams ruled against Nathaniel Ford, freeing the children of Polly and Robin Holmes.

Robin Holmes was the slave of Nathaniel Ford, a four-term sheriff of Howard County, Missouri and a major landholder there. In 1844, Ford, facing mounting debts, mortgaged Holmes‘ oldest children, Eliza, Clarisa and William, to another slave owner before migrating to the area of present-day Rickreall in Polk County. Holmes; Holmes‘ wife, Polly, and their youngest children, Mary Jane, James, and Roxanna, were taken to Oregon, despite the territory’s ban on slavery.

In 1850, Holmes released Robin and Polly from slavery, keeping four of the Holmes‘ children and threatening to sell the entire family back to Missouri.

Holmes filed a case against Ford in Ford County, charging that his family was being kept illegally, and requesting a writ of habeas corpus to compel Ford to free the children. Ford waited one year to respond to the summons pineapple to tenderize meat, claiming the papers had been lost in a coat pocket. In fact, Ford was seeking arrangements to transport the family back to Missouri, as threatened.

Three judges refused Holmes‘ case, which was brought to court by lawyer Reuben P. Boise. Ford argued that he had freed the Holmes‘ under the terms of his agreement, having asked Holmes to work for Ford’s son digging gold in California and had arranged to house and care for Holmes‘ wife and children, despite that they were unfit for work. Having now become old enough to work, Ford argued that he should be able to keep them as slaves until the daughters turned 18 and the sons turned 20.

In 1853, George H. Williams was named chief justice of the Territorial Supreme Court, and within weeks ruled against Ford and ordered the children returned to Robin and Polly Holmes. Williams described the case as “the last effort made to hold slaves in Oregon by force of law.”

This was the last challenge by pro-slavery elements in the territory to retain slavery. Then ten years later during the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation that would lead to the freeing of slaves in the parts of the United States in rebellion. The Thirteenth Amendment officially freed slaves in the remainder of the United States and outlawed slavery.

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Feb. 03.

Lluís Maria de Puig

Lluís Maria de Puig i Olivé how to tenderize roast, né le à Bàscara et mort le à Gérone, est un historien, professeur d’université et homme politique espagnol

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Real Madrid Club de Fútbol Away VARANE 2 Jerseys



, membre du Parti des socialistes de Catalogne (PSC).

Il étudie à Gérone, à Barcelone et à l’université Panthéon-Sorbonne à Paris. Il est professeur d’histoire à l’université autonome de Barcelone et à l’université de Gérone.

Opposant au franquisme dans la clandestinité reusable water bottle that looks like a plastic water bottle, il est militant de Convergence socialiste de Catalogne puis du Parti des socialistes de Catalogne (PSC) ainsi que de l’Union générale des travailleurs (UGT). Député aux Cortes de 1979 à 2004, il est vice-président de la commission des affaires extérieures du Congrès des députés waterproof bag for electronics. Il est ensuite sénateur de la coalition Accord catalan pour le progrès de 2004 à 2011.

Représentant à l’Assemblée de l’Union de l’Europe occidentale, il en est président de 1996 à 1999. Il est président de la commission de la culture, de la science et de l’éducation de l’Assemblée parlementaire du Conseil de l’Europe de 2002 à 2005, il est président de cette assemblée de 2008 à 2010.

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Feb. 03.

Koinonia Partners

Koinonia Farm is a Christian farming intentional community in Sumter County, Georgia.

The farm was founded in 1942 by two couples, Clarence and Florence Jordan and Martin and Mabel England, as a “demonstration plot for the Kingdom of God.” For them, this meant following the example of the first Christian communities as described in the Acts of the Apostles, amid the poverty and racism of the rural South. The name Koinonia is an ancient Greek word, used often in the New Testament, meaning deep fellowship. Koinonia members divested themselves of personal wealth and joined a „common purse“ economic system. They envisioned an interracial community where blacks and whites could live and work together in a spirit of partnership.

Based on their interpretation of the New Testament, Koinonia members committed to the following precepts:

Other families joined, and visitors came to “serve a period of apprenticeship in developing community life on the teachings and principles of Jesus.” Koinonians, visitors, and neighbors farmed, worshipped and ate together, attended Bible studies and held summer youth camps. When resources allowed the hiring of seasonal help, black and white workers were paid equally. Additional spiritual stewards of the community in the earlier years included Connie Browne and Will Wittkamper.

These practices were a break with the prevailing culture of Jim Crow-era Georgia, and were challenged by many citizens of Sumter County, most intensely during the 1950s, and with diminishing intensity for years thereafter. A boycott of the farm occurred during the mid-1950s. The local Chamber of Commerce met with the Full Members of The Farm to request that Koinonia sell its property and disband. The 1950s also saw acts of terrorism such as dynamiting Koinonia’s roadside produce stand, firing shots into the compound, and threatening phone calls and letters. The local Ku Klux Klan drove a 70+ car motorcade to the farm as an act of intimidation. Koinonia members discerned that their religious views called them to bear these acts nonviolently; members responded by writing editorials to the local newspaper clarifying the farm’s position, maintaining an unarmed watch at the entrance to the community during the nights, and other acts of nonviolent witness.

As a way to survive in hostile surroundings, Koinonia members created a small mail-order catalog to sell their farm’s pecans and peanuts around the world. The business’s first slogan was „Help us ship the nuts out of Georgia!“ The business evolved to include treats made in the farm’s bakery. The Koinonia Catalog business continued after the boycott concluded, and still constitutes the largest source of earned income for Koinonia.

Threats of physical violence dwindled in the late 1960s, but the population of Koinonia Farm was greatly diminished due to the stress of previous years. Koinonia members searched for a new focus, and considered closing the farm experiment if none were found.

Millard and Linda Fuller had spent a month at Koinonia several years earlier. Millard had been an extremely successful businessman before he and his wife Linda rededicated their lives to Christianity, divested of their wealth, and sought ways to live out their faith. Clarence Jordan, Millard Fuller, and other allies of Koinonia engaged in a series of meetings, out of which emerged a new direction for Koinonia.

Changing its name from Koinonia Farm to Koinonia Partners, the community refocused itself as a social service organization. The organization initiated several programs in partnership with its neighbors, chief among them Koinonia Partnership Housing, which organized the construction of affordable houses for low-income neighboring families previously living in shacks and dilapidated residences. Using volunteer labor and monetary donations, Koinonia built 194 homes from 1969 to 1992, which families bought with 20-year, no-interest mortgages. Mortgage payments were placed in a revolving Fund for Humanity. Payments into this fund were used to finance the construction of more houses. Of the houses built, 62 houses sit on Koinonia’s property, forming two neighborhoods that surround the central community area; the remaining houses are located in the towns of Americus and Plains, all within Sumter County.

The Fullers guided the first four years of Koinonia Partnership Housing, and then moved to Zaire ( now Democratic Republic of Congo for three years to establish a similar program there. In 1976, they returned to Americus and founded the non-profit organization Habitat for Humanity International. Modeled after the Koinonia Partnership Housing program, this organization builds houses with families in need, then sells the houses to the families at no profit and no interest. Habitat for Humanity volunteers and homeowners have built more than 500,000 houses in more than 100 countries.

Founding member Clarence Jordan held an undergraduate degree in agriculture from the University of Georgia and wanted to use his knowledge of scientific farming “to seek to conserve the soil, God’s holy earth” and to assist Koinonia’s neighbors, most of whom were African-American sharecroppers and tenant farmers. Jordan and fellow founding member Martin England were ordained ministers and professors. Jordan held a doctorate in New Testament Greek. Part of their vision for Koinonia was to offer training to African-American ministers living in the area. For the first few years of the Koinonia experiment, Jordan in particular was welcomed to preach and teach in local churches. Though the demands of farming in those early years did not allow time for formal training of others, Jordan used these visits to both black and white churches to offer guidance.

In addition to his work on the farm, Jordan penned many works of theology in his writing shack, a small one-room structure set near the „Bottom Garden“, now in one of the farm’s pecan orchards. Among the works penned there were four volumes collectively known as the Cotton Patch Version. These four volumes were a collective work blending Clarence’s translations of the New Testament Gospels from the original Greek into the Georgia vernacular and discussions of the full membership of Koinonia on the translations and meanings. He also prepared for his nationwide speaking engagements there. Jordan’s writing and speaking engagements brought the existence of Koinonia Farm (and later Koinonia Partners) to the awareness of many Christians, theologians, students, and others. Jordan’s Cotton Patch Version of Matthew and John was the inspiration for a musical theater work by Harry Chapin, The Cotton Patch Gospel.

On October 29, 1969, Clarence Jordan died of a heart attack at age 57, while working on a sermon in his writing shack. After Jordan’s death, other community members carried on the work of Koinonia. This work included the founding of other organizations such as Jubilee Partners in Comer, Georgia (a community that welcomes refugees from war-torn countries), New Hope House in Griffin, Georgia (assisting families with loved ones on death row, as well as advocating the abolition of the death penalty), The Prison & Jail Project in Americus, Georgia (an anti-racist, grassroots organization which monitors courtrooms, prisons and jails in southwest Georgia), and the Fuller Center for Housing (the second organization founded by Millard and Linda Fuller, also pursuing affordable housing solutions for impoverished families worldwide).

Koinonia members and ministries since 1969 include civil rights work, prison ministry, racial reconciliation, peace activism, early childhood education, youth and teen outreach, affordable housing, language training, sustainable agriculture, economic development branded glass water bottles, home repair, elder programs, and more. Current ministries include affordable home repair for neighbors, an elder program, a summer youth camp, welcoming visitors and guests in hospitality, and educating the public about Koinonia history and legacy.

In 1993, Koinonia abandoned its “common purse” and experimented with a corporate non-profit structure. During this period the organization was known as Koinonia Partners toothpaste dispenser canada, Inc. A board of directors and staff and volunteer positions were established to govern and operate the community, in place of the former community-based structure. This corporate structure was not suitable financially for the community. In 2005, Koinonia again reorganized, ending the distinction between staff and volunteers and committing once more to the intentional Christian community model. The common purse has not been readopted; rather, each member receives an allowance based upon his or her needs, family and responsibilities.

The community, again known by its original name, Koinonia Farm, was designated a Georgia Historic Site in 2005. The Koinonia community has been announced as the recipient of the 2008 Community of Christ International Peace Award.

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Feb. 03.

Jacques Dumont le Romain

Jacques Dumont called „le Romain“ (10 May 1704 — 1781), was a French history and portrait painter, called „the Roman“ from his youthful residence at Rome and to distinguish him from other artists named Dumont, notably his fellow-academician Jean-Joseph Dumont. His father, Pierre, was a court sculptor to the Duke of Lorraine and his elder brother recycle glass bottles, François (1687/88—1726), was also a sculptor. In addition to his paintings he practiced etching, in which medium he reproduced some of his paintings and, for example, Servandoni’s view of the fireworks celebrating the marriage of the dauphin, 1730. Though comparatively unknown today, he enjoyed celebrity and a long, successful career.

Pierre-Jean Mariette, who knew him well, reported that in his youth le Romain made his way to Rome by camping out; Mariette makes errors about his teacher in Rome, however. Dumont returned to Paris in 1725.

In 1727, he first showed at the Paris Salon and in 1728 he was received as a member of the Académie royal de peinture et de sculpture, with a Hercule et Omphale as his morceau de reception. At meetings he terrorized his fellow-academicians with his acerbic and caustic wit. When the engraver Le Bas was refused by the academicians, he remarked, „Stick a chalk-holder up his ass and he’ll still draw better than you.“

In 1731 he was appointed painter to the tapestry manufacture at Aubusson and served in that capacity until 1755, forming a school of designers there that raised standards of quality. His contract required six cartoons and three designs for pile carpets annually. Aubusson’s rivals at the royal manufacture of the Gobelins gave him a back-handed compliment in a memoire to the royal administration dated 10 March 1754, and signed by Audran, Cozette and Neilson: „to prevent the decadence of the Gobelin Factory, it would be necessary to attach to it Sr. Boucher,“ giving him the assistance of other painters of the Académie such as „Sieurs Dumont Le Romain, Jeaurat running reflective belt, Halle, Challe, Vien.“

When the official paintings school, the École royale des élèves protegés opened in January 1749, Dumont was appointed governor, but withdrew after three months, citing insufficient funds supporting the new institution.

His portrait of Mme Mercier, wetnurse to Louis XV, and her family, is conserved in the Louvre Museum how to make beef meat tender. A brief catalogue of known works reusable drink bottles, from 1727 to 1761, was published in Guy Vattier, Une famille d’artistes: Les Dumont, 1660-1884 1890.

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Feb. 02.

Aimé de Lemud

Portrait photographique d’Aimé de Lemud.

François-Joseph-Aimé Georges de Lemud dit « Aimé de Lemud », né le 19 septembre 1816 à Thionville et mort le 9 avril 1887 à Nancy, est un peintre, graveur, lithographe et statuaire français.

Aimé est le fils ainé du receveur des finances François Xavier Georges, baron de Lemud (1769-1844) et d’Anne de Chazelles (1790-1820), originaires de Pont-à-Mousson, ville où il commença ses études. Il entame ensuite des études de droit à Metz, puis, renonçant à une carrière militaire à laquelle le destinait sa famille, monte à Paris et tente de vivre de son art par ses propres moyens. Vers 1834-1835, fréquentant Louis-Théodore Devilly, il commence à publier des dessins dans le journal L’Artiste, travaux essentiellement alimentaires. Peu après, il se fait connaître pour sa maîtrise de la lithographie. Il rencontre Charles Nodier qui lui ouvre les portes du club qui se réunissait à la bibliothèque de l’Arsenal.

Sa lithographie, Maître Wolfrain (1838), d’après un conte d’E. T. A. Hoffmann, connaît un certain succès auprès de la bohème au cours des années 1840, citée notamment par Charles Baudelaire

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Mexico Home BORGETTI 9 Jerseys



, Champfleury et est remarquée par Gustave Courbet.

De Lemud se classe parmi les premiers artistes romantiques français. En 1844, son tableau Le Prisonnier (sans doute inspiré d’Hugo) est remarqué au Salon de peinture de Metz, ville où il retourne fréquemment : il se rapproche ainsi de l’école de Metz et de Laurent-Charles Maréchal. Cette année-là, des éditeurs parisiens lui passe commande d’illustrations pour de nombreux auteurs dont Victor Hugo. La plupart de ces ouvrages sont édités sous « cartonnages romantiques&nbsp football uniform creator;» et figurent parmi les plus beaux de cette époque.

Il épouse en 1848 Alice Marie de Marguerye, union dont naîtra une fille.

Il produit à partir de 1849 une série d’eaux fortes.

En 1865

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, il est nommé chevalier de la Légion d’honneur en récompense de ses travaux de gravure.

En 1873, après l’annexion de Metz par les Allemands, Aimé de Lemud se fixe à Nancy puis plonge dans une crise mystique, renonçant à son art.

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Feb. 02.

Tor Books


Том Дохерти

 США: Флэтайрон-билдинг, Нью-Йорк

издательское дело (МСОК: 58)

Georg von Holtzbrinck

Tor Books — одно из двух основных издательств, входящих в состав издательского конгломерата Tom Doherty Associates, LLC Тома Дохерти. Основное направление компании — выпуск книг в жанре научной фантастики и фэнтези. Также Tor Books выпускает научно-фантастический онлайн-журнал Штаб-квартира издательства расположена в небоскрёбе Флэтайрон на Манхэттене, а для работы с европейскими авторами в Великобритании был создан филиал Tor UK.

Издательство Tor Books было основано Томом Дохерти (англ.) в 1980 году и продано компании St. Martin’s Press (англ.) в 1986 году. В 2001 году Macmillan Publishers и её дочерняя компания St. Martin’s Press стали частью немецкой издательской группы Georg von Holtzbrinck (англ.), расширяющей свои интересы на американском рынке. Tor Books, таким образом, вошли в состав одного из крупнейших мировых издательских конгломератов, сохранив, при этом, некоторую независимость cool sports water bottles.

В настоящее время insulated bottle, Том Дохерти продолжает оставаться президентом объединения Tom Doherty Associates, в которое входят импринты Tor Books и Forge. Forge публикует различные фантастические произведения, исторические новеллы, триллеры, вестерны, а также мистику и классику. Tor Books, помимо фантастики, занимается также изданием книг для юных читателей, используя для этого импринты Starscape и Tor Teen cell phone underwater case.

Tor UK, импринт в Великобритании, также специализируется на научной фантастике, фэнтези и хоррорах. Для детей и подростков Tor UK выпускает произведения, основанные на вселенных из компьютерных игр. В Tor UK действует открытая политика отправки рукописей, позволяющая любому автору прислать своё произведение в издательство и попробовать опубликовать свою собственную книгу. Многие писатели Tor UK получили престижные литературные премии, а среди грандов можно выделить таких авторов, как Дугласа Адамса, Чайну Мьевиль, Джеймса Герберта и Аманду Хокинг.

Большинство книг издательства доступны для покупки в электронном виде. С 2012 года они продаются без DRM-защиты, а в 2013 году было сделано заявление, что отсутствие защиты никак не повлияло на статистику продаж.

С 1988 года, 26 лет подряд, Tor Books получает награду как лучшее издательство по итогам голосования читателей журнала Locus. На сайте журнала издательство описывается как «самый успешный издатель научно-фантастических и фэнтезийных книг».

В марте 2014 года вебсайт Worlds Without Ends отметил, что Tor занимает вторую строчку в списке издательств, получивших наибольшее количество наград и публикующих научную-фантастику, фэнтези и хоррор. На 27 июля 2014 года издательство опубликовало 1050 романов от 253 авторов и из 335 номинаций на книжные премии, победа была достигнута в 55. Пять раз авторы Tor Books становились обладателями премии «Небьюла» за лучший роман и восемь раз — обладателями премии «Хьюго».

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Feb. 02.

Bounleuth Saycocie

Colonel Bounleuth Saycocie (born September 1, 1931) was a Lao military and political figure of the Second Indochina War.

Bounleut Saycocie was born in Hineboune District, Khammouan Province and attended the Lycée Pavie in Vientiane followed by the Lao Military Academy (Army Officers School) at Dong Hene, Savannakhet Province. He also studied at the French Army Staff College (Ecole d’Etat-Major) in Paris and at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.[citation needed]

From 1960-1962 he was a lieutenant colonel and served as Military Attaché to the Royal Lao Embassy in Washington D.C. He was promoted to colonel in 1962 and served as Chief of Special Cabinet (Military Affairs) of the Ministry of Defense until 1964. From 1964-1966, he was Chief Logistics Officer of the Royal Lao Army in Vientiane.[citation needed].

Along with Phoumi, he is said to have assisted in drafting the plan for Thao Ma’s attempted coup in August 1973. Bounleut accompanied Thao Ma in the latter’s seizure of Wattay International Airport on 20 August 1973. While Thao Ma commandeered aircraft tenderizers in baking, Bounleut drove an armored car into Vientiane to take over the radio station. At 07:00 hours, he broadcast a communiqué calling for the replacement of Prince Souvanna Phouma by Prince Boun Oum pure glass bottle. As the coup was suppressed, Bounleut stole a Cessna U-17 and returned to Thailand.

After the Lao People’s Democratic Republic was established by the communist Pathet Lao in 1975, Col. Bounleuth became a leader of the anti-communist political and military resistance against the communist Lao government and their Vietnamese mentors.

Col. Bounleuth finally immigrated to the USA in 2000 as a political refugee meat cuber machine. He had a stroke a few years later and is paralyzed and bed ridden. He lives in Minneapolis, Minnesota.[citation needed]

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Feb. 02.

José María Sánchez Lage

José María Sánchez Lage (Buenos Aires, Argentina. 11 de mayo de 1931 – Buenos Aires, Argentina. 31 de diciembre de 2004), más conocido como Sánchez Lage, fue un ex-futbolista argentino. Jugaba de centrocampista y su primer club fue River Plate.

Comenzó su carrera en 1950 jugando para River Plate. Jugó para el club hasta 1951 water flask bottle. En ese año se fue cedido a Banfield, en donde jugó hasta 1953. En 1954 se pasó a Huracán, en donde se quedó hasta 1955. Ese año regresó a River Plate. Jugó para el equipo hasta el año 1957. En 1958 se pasó a Atlanta. En ese año se fue a España para jugar en el Real Oviedo. Jugó para ese club hasta 1963. En ese año se pasó al Valencia CF, en donde estuvo hasta el año 1966. En ese año se fue al Deportivo La Coruña, jugando ahí hasta 1967. En ese año se pasó a las filas del Levante UD, en donde estuvo hasta 1968. Ese año, tras jugar 10 años en España, regresó a la Argentina para volver a jugar en el club que lo vio nacer, River Plate non leaking water bottles. Se retiró en 1970.

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Jan. 30.

Meteora (album)

Meteora is the second studio album by American rock band Linkin Park. It was released on March 25, 2003 through Warner Bros. Records, following Reanimation, a collaboration album which featured remixes of songs included on their debut studio album Hybrid Theory. The album was produced by the band alongside Don Gilmore. The title Meteora is taken from the Greek Orthodox monasteries sharing the same name.

Meteora has a similar sound to Hybrid Theory, as described by critics best way to tenderize meat, and the album took almost a year to be recorded. The main artwork was assembled by the band with help of various other graphic artists. Linkin Park released singles from Meteora for over a year, including „Somewhere I Belong“, „Faint“, „Numb“, „From the Inside“ and „Breaking the Habit“. The song „Lying from You“ was released as a promotional single.

Meteora is the most successful album in the history of the Alternative Songs chart. As of 2013, the album has sold over 27 million copies worldwide, and is certified seven times platinum by the RIAA. Meteora was also ranked number 36 on Billboards Top 200 Albums of the Decade tenderizing tough steak. The song „Session“ was nominated for the 2004 Grammy Award for Best Rock Instrumental Performance, losing to Jeff Beck’s „Plan B“. Some songs from the album were remixed with some of Jay-Z’s songs for the EP Collision Course. It is the first Linkin Park studio album to feature Dave Farrell after he rejoined the band in 2000.

In 2000, Linkin Park worked with music producer Don Gilmore to record and release their debut album, Hybrid Theory. Initial writing for a second album dated back to in early 2001, while still touring in support of Hybrid Theory. The band had written around eighty different demos during their Hybrid Theory World Tour and LP Underground Tour, within the span of just eight months. Rough song ideas written then would find its way to the final album; notably the intro for „Somewhere I Belong“. Bennington recorded guitar notes for it,[citation needed] but found it too folk rock sounding. However, Shinoda and Joe Hahn reworked it, adding effects to it, and then played it backwards, molding it into something the band was happy with. As explained by Shinoda: „Since I reversed it, it was playing 4-3-2-1. The chord progression was reversed. Then I cut it into four pieces, and I played it 1-2-3-4. And that’s why it has that sweeping sound.“

Prior to releasing a second album, the band instead chose to release a remix album, Reanimation, in 2002, produced by band member Mike Shinoda. The experience lead the band to want to co-produce their second album, while still working with Gilmore, hoping to expand on the sound of Hybrid Theory with more experimental ideas. In early 2002, after the touring, the writing continued in Mike’s home studio, pre-production of the album began there. The band worked in pairs during the writing process, whereas Shinoda was always involved in all the songs. The recording of the songs mainly used Pro Tools, whereas the band used the traditional method of writing, in main studio. In June, pre-production terminated and the band headed for main production. The band finalized Don Gilmore as their producer. When Reanimation was released, the band had started to write the main content. Rob Bourdon spent eight hours a day in the studio for the recording of the album. By August, the band entered NRG Studios as Bennington also began writing songs with the band.

Linkin Park had finished versions of many songs before the actual recording process had begun, but they majorly wrote the finalized songs included in the track list in the studio. By October the drums were finalized and guitar parts were introduced by Brad in the control room of the studio. By the end of October, the bass parts were introduced. Don Gilmore himself being a bass player helped Farrell in his recording. The sampling part by Hahn was introduced just a month before the deadline, thereby Mike finished the recording of „Breaking the Habit“ with strings arrangement by David Campbell what to use to tenderize steak; the song had been worked on by Shinoda for five or six years. The vocal production started in November. The mixing process as well as the album itself was finished in New York City.

Lyrically the album contains elements including depressing emotions, anger and recovery. Explaining to MTV, Bennington said: „We don’t talk about situations, we talk about the emotions behind the situations. Mike and I are two different people, so we can’t sing about the same things, but we both know about frustration and anger and loneliness and love and happiness, and we can relate on that level.“ In the same interview, Shinoda explained it as: „What we really wanted to do was just push ourselves and push each other to really find new ways to be creative.“ He continued: „We wanted each sample that was in each song to be something that might perk your ear – something that you might not have ever heard before.“

In a promotional interview, Rob Bourdon stated: „We wanted a group of songs that would sit well together because we wanted to make a record that you could pop into your CD player and, from beginning to end, there would never be a spot where you start daydreaming.“

In titling the album, Mike said that „Meteora was a word that caught my attention because it sounded huge.“ Dave, Joe, and Chester elaborated that just like how Meteora where to buy glass bottled water, the rock formations in Greece, is very epic, dramatic, and has great energy, the band wanted the album to have that same feeling.

Genre-wise, the album is categorized as nu metal, rap metal, rap rock, alternative metal, and alternative rock.

The promotion for the album began well ahead before its release, as pictures of the band recording were distributed to the media. To support the album, there were many photo shoots of the band on October 29 at the Ambassador Hotel, where the band took a break from recording the album for two days, for designing the cover art of the album. „The Flem“ and „Delta“ helped the band for the art works, for the album as well as for the singles spawned by it. A TV commercial for the album was premiered on January 1, 2003.

„Somewhere I Belong“ was released as the first single, premiering on US radio on March 18, 2003. Being released only nine days before the album release, it influenced the album sales performance worldwide. The second single off the album was „Faint“, released before the band started its world tour. The third single „Numb“ was released when Linkin Park performed it live in Madrid. „From the Inside“ was released as the fourth single off the album before the North American leg of the world tour. „Breaking the Habit“ was released while the band was in Indonesia. The album was released with various limited edition content for promotional purposes.

There is a special edition of Meteora, which includes the „Making of Meteora“ DVD documentary. The special-edition package was packaged in a blue tinted case with the blue Meteora cover that can be found in some parts of Asia, United States, and more commonly in India. An alternate Indian version contains an alternate DVD and alternative cover that is packaged in a slimline case with the disc in original packaging. The „Tour Edition“ of Meteora is packaged in a two disc set. The second disc, which is a Video CD, has the music videos for „Somewhere I Belong“, „Faint“, „Numb“, and „Breaking the Habit“. The tour edition is packaged in a standard Compact Disc case, rather than their trademark digipak case. The album was also released on a very limited quantity of vinyl records (spread across two LPs) under Warner Brothers. These are coveted by collectors and fetch high prices at auction. In 2014, Linkin Park released a demo version of Shinoda singing the song, on their 14th annual fan club CD, LPU XIV.

The band promoted the album with their Meteora World Tour and various other supporting tours. The world tour was supported by Hoobastank, P.O.D. and Story of the Year. The band played shows at Pellissier Building and Wiltern Theatre on the day before the album release and on the release date. The shows were called „‚Meteora‘ Release Show“. The European leg was cancelled because Chester was having severe back and abdominal pains. As a result, half of the music video of „Numb“ was shot in Los Angeles and the Czech Republic. The album was also promoted by the Projekt Revolution festival. A live album was released in support of the album titled Live in Texas. Linkin Park played various special shows worldwide, including „Reading Ireland“, as well as performing during the Kerrang! Awards, „Livid“, „X-103’s Not So Silent Night“, „The End’s Deck The Hall Ball“ and „KROQ Almost Acoustic X-Mas“, in promotion of the album.

Meteora received generally positive reviews, although critics noted that the album’s musical style was similar to its predecessor, Hybrid Theory (2000). The overall Metacritic score is 62. E! Online rated it A, and expected it to „shoot straight for the stars“. Entertainment Weekly described it as „radio-friendly perfection“.Dot Music described it as a „guaranteed source of ubiquitous radio hits“. Rolling Stone said the band „squeezed the last remaining life out of this nearly extinct formula“. Billboard Magazine described Meteora as „a ready-made crowdpleaser“. The New Musical Express said it had „massive commercial appeal“ but left the reviewer „underwhelmed“.

AllMusic described it as „nothing more and nothing less than Hybrid Theory Part 2.“, adding „More importantly, the group has discipline and editing skills, keeping this record at a tight 36 minutes and 41 seconds, a move that makes it considerably more listenable than its peers and, by extension, more powerful, since they know where to focus their energy, something that many nu-metal bands simply do not.“ Sputnikmusic writer Damrod criticized the album as being too similar to Hybrid Theory, but praised the album’s production quality and catchiness, stating „the songs just invade your brain“.

Blender described it as „harder, denser, uglier“, while Q described it as „less an artistic endeavor than an exercise in target marketing.“ Entertainment Weekly gave the album a B+, calling it a „thunderously hooky album that seamlessly blends the group’s disparate sonic elements into radio-friendly perfection“

The song „Session“ was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Rock Instrumental Performance in 2004.

In its first week, Meteora debuted at number 1 on the Billboard 200. The album sold at least 810,000 copies its first week of release. As of June 2014, the album has sold 6.2 million copies in the US, and over 27 million copies worldwide. The album was ranked number 36 on Billboard‘s Hot 200 Albums of the Decade.

All tracks written by Linkin Park.

Meteora – Live Around the World is a live album which features live versions of seven songs from the second studio album, Meteora, similar to their prior live release Hybrid Theory – Live Around the World . They were recorded in various cities around the world from 2007 to 2011. The album was released exclusively on iTunes.

„Foreword“ was included before „Don’t Stay“

All tracks written by Linkin Park.



*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone
double-daggersales+streaming figures based on certification alone

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