Author Archives: admin

Apr. 17.

Riot grrrl


Riot grrrl er en feministisk undergrunnsbevegelse som oppstod tidlig på 1990-tallet i Washington D.C. og Pacific Northwest thermos water bottle replacement parts, hovedsakelig i Olympia (Washington). Riot grrrl er også betegnelsen på en musikksjanger som har sitt utspring fra indie rock og punk.

Bevegelsen var bygget på DIY-konseptet (Do It Yourself) og lagde musikk, magasiner (såkalte zines) running belts, kunst og en del var også involvert i politiske aksjoner. Møter ble holdt for å snakke om bl.a. kjønnsdiskriminering, voldtekt og seksualitet. Bevegelsen tillot kvinner å utfordre normer og idéer om femininitet mens de lagde musikk, kunst og annen kultur på deres egne premisser. De selvpubliserte, fotokopierte magasinene ble en trygg måte for dem å diskutere, gå nærmere i sømmene og stå imot den kulturelle undervurderingen av kvinner på.

Disse formene for DIY-feministisk kulturell aktivisme gjorde at flere band med dette utgangspunktet kom på banen. Bandene som blir assosiert med Riot grrrls-bevegelsen er blant andre Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, Huggy Bear, Heavens to Betsy og Sleater-Kinney. Disse bandene utfordret den kjønnsdiskriminerende punkscenen og ønsket å inspirere kvinner til å uttrykke seg på samme måte som menn hadde gjort de siste årene. Bandene brukte ofte ord som «cunt», «slut» og «dyke» og skrev ordene stolt på kroppen sin for å redefinere språket.

Betegnelsen Riot grrrl oppstod da en gjeng skulle finne et navn på et nytt magasin som de skulle dele ut på show for å trekke nye folk til bevegelsen. De bestemte seg for å gå for en blanding av Jen Smiths «girl riot» og Tobi Vails «grrrl»

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, som var en spøkefull undertittel til et nummer av hennes magasin Jigsaw, nemlig «Angry grrrl zine».

Mot slutten av 90-tallet ble sentrale band oppløst (Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, Heavens to Betsy) og interessen for bevegelsen så ut til å avta. Sentrale skikkelser i miljøet, som for eksempel Kathleen Hanna, har fortsatt å lage musikk, eksempler på dette er Le Tigre, MEN, Julie Ruin og White Flag.

Den dag i dag er det flere velkjente artister og andre som har latt seg inspirere av bevegelsen, deriblant Beth Ditto i The Gossip, Pussy Riot og St. Vincent.

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Apr. 15.

Säppi


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Géolocalisation sur la carte : Finlande

Säppi (en suédois : Säbbskär) est une île de Finlande en mer de Botnie.

Située à 20 km à l’Ouest de Pori automatic meat tenderizer, elle appartient à la municipalité d‘ Eurajoki. Elle s’étend sur 1,3 km de longueur et 1 stainless water container,1 km de largeur.

Le phare de Säppi, construit en 1873, est classé à la direction des musées de Finlande. En 1959, y a été fondé un observatoire ornithologique. L’île fait partie du Parc national de la mer de Botnie depuis 2011. 4 000 touristes la visitent chaque année.

En août 1997, sur sa rive Nord a été retrouvé des dauphins morts.

En dehors de son importante faune ornithologique, l’île abrite aussi une espèce sauvage de mouflon corse ainsi que des highlands.

Coup de soleil sur le port

Le phare

Highlands de l’île

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :


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Apr. 14.

Tartan Day


Le Tartan Day (en), (Jour du Tartan ou Fête du Tartan) célèbre les liens historiques et actuels qui existent entre l’Écosse et les descendants d’immigrés écossais en Amérique du Nord et dans certains pays du Commonwealth.

Le Tartan Day est célébré le 6 avril, date anniversaire de la déclaration d’Arbroath de 1320, aux États-Unis ainsi qu’au Canada et le 1er juillet en Australie et Nouvelle-Zélande.

L’histoire du Tartan Day commence par l’immigration d’hommes écossais vers le continent américain, qui par la suite participèrent à la construction des États-Unis et du Canada, gravissant les échelons de la vie sociale et imprimant leurs histoires personnelles et collectives tout au long des siècles. La contribution des Écossais immigrés à la construction de l’Amérique du Nord moderne est massive et beaucoup sont restés attachés à leurs traditions.

Woodrow Wilson, petit-fils d’un pasteur presbytérien écossais immigré aux États-Unis, désire honorer ses ancêtres ainsi que leurs héritage

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, culture et traditions par une célébration annuelle, afin que chacun des descendants de souche écossaise vivant sur le sol américain – et partout ailleurs – se remémore les efforts fournis par ses aïeux.

En 1982, sous l’impulsion du „Calédonian Club“ de New York, le gouverneur Hugh Carey de l’État de New York, et le maire Ed Koch de New York ont déclaré le 1er juillet 1982, comme jour de Tartan, une célébration du 200e anniversaire de l’abrogation de „Act of Proscription“ ((en), acte de la proscription) du 12 août 1747, interdisant aux Écossais de porter le tartan philip shaver house.

Cette date du 1er juillet a été adoptée comme Tartan Day également dans plusieurs pays du Commonwealth, tels que l’Australie et la Nouvelle-Zélande ; elle n’a pas été modifiée par la suite.

Au Canada, l’idée d’un „Scots Day(en) (Jour des Écossais), immédiatement renommé „Tartan Day“, dans le but de favoriser l’identification de l’héritage écossais, a commencé sous l’impulsion de la Federation of Scottish Clans (ou Clans) de Nouvelle-Écosse en 1986. Pétitionné par Jean Watson, le président du clan Farquharson, une première motion est adoptée en 1987.

Le 19 décembre 1991, en réponse à l’action lancée par la Clans et diverses sociétés écossaises du Canada, la législature de l’Ontario adopte une résolution proclamant l’anniversaire de la déclaration d’Arbroath (le 6 avril 1320) comme Jour du Tartan, cette date marquant la célébration de leurs racines écossaises. Chaque américain d’origine écossaise est ce jour-là invité à porter le tartan.

Les sociétés et groupes d’américains d’origine écossaise, nombreux au Canada et aux États-Unis, suivent le mouvement et célèbrent à leur tour le Tartan Day, tout en appelant à une reconnaissance officielle des festivités.

Le 20 mars 1998 aux États-Unis, la Résolution 155 (S. Res. 155) proposée par le républicain Trent Lott, alors chef de file du parti majoritaire, est adoptée à l’unanimité. Le 6 avril a été officiellement identifié par le Sénat des États-Unis comme célébration de la contribution apportée par des générations d’Écossais-Américains à la base et à la prospérité de l’Amérique moderne.

« The Tartan Day resolution of the United States Senate

Senate Resolution 155, March 20th 1998

Whereas April 6 has a special significance for all Americans, and especially those Americans of Scottish descent, because the Declaration of Arbroath, the Scottish Declaration of Independence, was signed on April 6, 1320 and the American Declaration of Independence was modeled on that inspirational document;

Whereas this resolution honors the major role that Scottish Americans played in the founding of this Nation, such as the fact that almost half of the signers of the Declaration of Independence were of Scottish descent, the Governors in 9 of the original 13 States were of Scottish ancestry, Scottish Americans successfully helped shape this country in its formative years and guide this Nation through its most troubled times;

Whereas this resolution recognizes the monumental achievements and invaluable contributions made by Scottish Americans that have led to America’s preeminence in the fields of science, technology, medicine, government, politics, economics, architecture, literature, media, and visual and performing arts;

Whereas this resolution commends the more than 200 organizations throughout the United States that honor Scottish heritage, tradition, and culture, representing the hundreds of thousands of Americans of Scottish descent, residing in every State, who already have made the observance of Tartan Day on April 6 a success;

Whereas these numerous individuals, clans, societies, clubs, and fraternal organizations do not let the great contributions of the Scottish people go unnoticed:

Now, therefore, be it Resolved, That the Senate designates April 6 of each year as „National Tartan Day.“ »

« Résolution du Sénat des États-Unis concernant le Jour du Tartan

Résolution 155 du 20 mars 1998

Considérant que le 6 avril a une signification spéciale pour tous les Américains, et particulièrement les Américains de descendance écossaise, parce que la déclaration d’Arbroath, la déclaration écossaise de l’indépendance a été signée le 6 avril 1320, et que, la déclaration américaine d’indépendance a été inspirée et modelée à partir de ce document.

Considérant que cette résolution honore le rôle principal que les Écossais-Américains ont joué dans la fondation de cette nation, telle que le fait que presque la moitié des signataires de la déclaration d’indépendance étaient de descendance écossaise, que les gouverneurs de 9 des 13 États d’origine étaient de descendance écossaise, que les Écossais-Américains ont formé avec succès et aidé ce pays en ses années formatrices et guidèrent cette nation dans ses périodes plus préoccupées.

Considérant que cette résolution identifie les accomplissements monumentaux et les contributions de valeur inestimable apportés par les Écossais-Américains, qui ont mené avec prééminence l’Amérique dans les domaines de la science, de la technologie, de la médecine, du gouvernement, de la politique, des sciences économiques, de l’architecture, de la littérature, des médias, de la visualisation et l’exécution des arts.

Considérant que cette résolution recommande les plus de 200 organismes dans l’ensemble des États-Unis qui honorent l’héritage, la tradition et la culture écossaise, représentant les centaines de milliers d’Américains de descendance écossaise, résidant dans chaque État, qui ont déjà fait à l’observance du 6 avril le jour du Tartan un succès.

Considérant que ces nombreux individus, clans, sociétés, clubs et organismes fraternels, ne laissent pas les grandes contributions des écossais passer inaperçues :

Maintenant, donc, que ce soit résolu, que le Sénat déclare que tous les ans, le 6 avril soit : « Jour national du Tartan ». »

Résolution du Tartan Day de la Chambre des Représentants des États-Unis

Le 9 mars 2005, la Chambre des Représentants des États-Unis a adopté à l’unanimité la résolution 41, qui indique que chaque année, le 6 avril soit Jour national du Tartan. Les commanditaires en chef de la H. Res. 41 étaient les membres du Congrès Mike McIntyre de la Caroline du Nord et de John Duncan du Tennessee. En plus des deux commanditaires en chef, la résolution a eu 54 coparrains, y compris le membre du Congrès Candice Miller du Michigan, membre du Congrès Danny K. Davis de l’Illinois et membre du Congrès Alcee Hastings de Floride, s’étant tous adressé à la Chambre des Représentants en faveur de la résolution. Cette action récompense les efforts qui ont commencé en 1998 quand le 105e congrès a passé la résolution 155 du sénat.


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Feb. 27.

Timeline of early HIV/AIDS cases


This article is a timeline of early AIDS cases.

An AIDS case is classified as „early“ if the death occurred before 5 June 1981, when the AIDS epidemic was formally recognized by medical professionals in the United States.

Human blood samples from 1959 and 1960 from Kinshasa, the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the Congo River, led scientists to extrapolate the virus back to the early 1900s, likely around 1908 in Africa.[medical citation needed] Around that time the virus may have been transmitted from another species.[medical citation needed] Paralleling the HIV discoveries, primate researchers found Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), which was widespread among many species of chimpanzees.[medical citation needed]

In 2006, scientists reported the origin of HIV came from a species of chimpanzees that were „penned in“ a 100-square-mile section of Cameroon bracketed by the Boumba River to the west, the Sangha River to the east, „this patch of tropical forest is sealed into an inland peninsula to the south by the Ngoko River.“[medical citation needed] One hypothesis is that a Bantu hunter became infected while processing a chimpanzee.[medical citation needed] In the early 1900s the area was experiencing an upheaval as the German Empire took over the land in 1884, naming the colony Kamerun.[medical citation needed] The hypothesis follows that the infected hunter would have visited or moved to a more densely populated area and passed the infection on via sexual contact.[medical citation needed]

Using the same virus tracing technologies, scientists extrapolate about a „chimp patient zero“ that existed within a million years ago, although it is likely impossible to further limit the time frame.[medical citation needed] This chimp would have had to have eaten SIV-infected monkeys from two distinct species, a red-capped mangabey, and a spot-nosed guenon.[medical citation needed] Normally these viruses would have been defeated separately, or never interacted.[medical citation needed] But in „chimp zero“, a relatively rare occurrence of pieces of the two viruses combined and thrived, leading to the virus that later was introduced to humans and became one virus.[medical citation needed] Scientists have found a dozen HIV strains spread from chimps, monkeys, and gorillas, but one is responsible for the majority of the human infections causing a high percentage of the almost 36 million people who have died as of 2014.[medical citation needed] The research is being used to study the prevention of other „patient zero“ events with other viruses.[medical citation needed]

The strain of HIV viruses most closely related to the lineage of HIV-1 subgroup M (responsible for the global pandemic) may have first emerged in the 1920s in Kinshasa, then part of the Belgian Congo buy stainless steel water bottle. A team of scientists from the universities of Oxford and Leuven concluded this „estimated location of pandemic origin“ in 2014 by applying computational methods of evolutionary analysis to archived samples of HIV’s genetic code.[medical citation needed]

Earlier, it had been estimated from the genetic differences of the ZR59 and DRC60 samples that HIV-1 subgroup M had jumped to humans in 1908 ± 10 years.

Sadayo Fujisawa, a sixty-year-old Japanese-Canadian chiropractor-masseuse-midwife, died on 28 June 1945 of pneumocystis pneumonia with Human cytomegalovirus (CMV), diarrhea, and wasting, a group of symptoms which some authors conclude would have led to an automatic diagnosis of AIDS in the early 1980s. The British writer Edward Hooper argues that it was not a case of AIDS based on polymerase chain reaction tests by Dr. Serge Jothy and Fergal Hill performed on slides from Mrs. Sadayo’s autopsy and that were not able to find HIV by 1993’s standards.[Unreliable fringe source?]

Richard Edwin Graves Jr., a 28-year-old World War II veteran who had been stationed in the Solomon Islands, died on 26 July 1952 in Memphis, Tennessee with pneumocystis pneumonia, CMV and what some authors suggest are a sufficient number of opportunistic infections for a clinical course suggestive of an AIDS diagnosis. Again, by contrast, Hooper disagrees (p. 146), citing Lester Wold, the chair of pathology at the Mayo Clinic, and Sebastian Lucas, an AIDS specialist, to suggest that Graves died of HTLV-1 and Non-Hodgkins lymphoma.[unreliable medical source?]

Until 2008, the earliest known sample of HIV-1 was from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (formerly Zaïre, formerly Belgian Congo). The sample, named ZR59, was isolated from tissues collected from „a Bantu male“ in 1959 and was found with retrospective genetic analysis to be most closely related to subtype D strains. In 2008, partial HIV viral sequences were identified from a specimen of lymph node collected from an adult female in Kinshasa, DRC in 1960. This specimen, named DRC60, was around 88% similar to ZR59, but was found to be most closely related to subtype A HIV-1 strains. These specimens are significant not only because they are the oldest specimens of the virus known to cause AIDS, but because they show that the virus already had an extensive amount of genetic diversity in 1960. This suggests the virus had either undergone recombination or been circulating for years or perhaps decades in the Kinshasa population.

Notable potential individual cases of AIDS from this period include:

David Carr: (Contested, see below

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.) A Manchester printer (sometimes mistakenly referred to as a sailor) who died 31 August 1959 following the failure of his immune system; he succumbed to pneumonia. Doctors, baffled by what he had died from, preserved 50 of his tissue samples for inspection. In 1990, the tissues were found to be HIV-positive. However, in 1992, a second test by AIDS researcher David Ho found that the strain of HIV present in the tissues was similar to those found in the late 1980s rather than an earlier strain (which would have mutated considerably over the course of 30 years). Ho’s discovery has cast doubt on David Carr’s death being caused by AIDS.[medical citation needed]

Ardouin Antonio, a 49-year-old Haitian, has been suggested as a possible early AIDS case. Antonio had emigrated to the United States in 1927, and at the time of death was working as a shipping clerk for a garment manufacturer in Manhattan. He developed similar symptoms to David Carr’s, and died on 28 June 1959, apparently of the same very rare kind of pneumonia as Carr. Many years later, Dr. Gordon R. Hennigar, who had performed Antonio’s autopsy, was asked whether he thought his patient had died of AIDS; he replied „You bet … It was so unusual at the time. Lord knows how many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS. I think it’s such a strong possibility that I’ve often thought about getting them to send me the tissue samples.“ Some doctors disagree. Edward Hooper disputes this in his book, „The River“ based on a PCR performed (by 1993’s standards) by Fergal Hill.[Unreliable fringe source?]

Robert Rayford: A 16-year-old boy who died in 1969, described as the first case of AIDS in the United States, though critics[who?] argue the testing in this case should not be regarded as definitive.

Researchers drew blood from 75 children in Uganda to serve as controls for a study of Burkitt’s lymphoma. In 1985, retroactive testing of the frozen blood serum indicated that 50 of the children had antibodies to a virus related to HIV.

Arvid Noe: Arvid Darre Noe (an anagram of his birth name Arne Vidar Røed) was a Norwegian sailor and truck driver who was probably infected in Cameroon some time between 1962 and 1965, and died on 24 April 1976, three months after his daughter. Tissues of Røed, his wife and daughter all tested positive for HIV in an epidemiology study in 1988.

Grethe Rask: A Danish surgeon who traveled to Zaïre in 1972 to aid the sick. She was likely directly exposed to blood from many Congolese patients, one of whom infected her. She returned to Denmark in late 1976, with her colleagues baffled by her symptoms. She died in December 1977. Her tissues were examined and tested positive by her colleagues in 1987.

Senhor José (English: Mr. Joseph): A Portuguese man who is the first confirmed case of HIV-2. He was believed to have been exposed to the disease in Guinea-Bissau in 1966. He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases by Professor Anthony Bryceson until finally succumbing to the disease in 1978.

Herbert Heinrich: German concert violinist who died in 1979. Tests in 1989 found that he was HIV-positive, and there has been speculation that he was infected by a prostitute who was infected by Røed, but as of 1997, this had not been proven.


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Feb. 26.

Cercopithecus preussi


Allochrocebus preussi

El cercopiteco de Preuss (Cercopithecus preussi) es una es una especie de primate catarrino perteneciente a la familia Cercopithecidae.​ Es un animal diurno y terrestre que habita en bosques de hasta las 2500 msnm al oriente de Nigeria, occidente de Camerún y la isla Bioko en Guinea Ecuatorial. Algunos autores lo clasifican como subespecie del cercopiteco de L’Hoest (Cercopithecus lhoesti).

Habita en las montañas de su área de distribución. Se encuentra normalmente por encima de los 800 metros en el bosque de montaña, sin embargo best waterproof 5s case, en elevaciones menores, este mono es reemplazado por el mono de nariz blanca (Cercopithecus nictitans). En la Caldera, sin embargo, el Programa de Protección de la Biodiversidad de Bioko registró encuentros con estos primates a una altitud de 450 metros waterproof sports bag.

Se alimenta primordialmente de frutas, hojas e insectos; sin embargo, en ocasiones incursionan en cultivo. Tiene una coloración gris oscura con la barbilla blanca y tiene una pechera peluda debajo de la cara y una cola larga enrollada. Los machos adultos tienen el escroto de color azul. La especie pesa hasta 10 kg. Los grupos se integran por un macho adulto, algunas hembras y jóvenes de ambos sexos, con un promedio de 17 animales por grupo. Las hembras dan a luz una sola cría alrededor de una vez cada 3 años. Alcanzan la edad adulta a los cuatro años y viven en promedio 31 años.

El cercopiteco de Preuss está incluido en la Lista Roja de la UICN como especie en peligro de extinción, debido a la pérdida de su hábitat.​ Es una de las especies que habita en el Hotspot de biodiversidad de los bosques de Guinea en África Occidental. Solía ser el mono más común en el Pico Basilé, pero hay considerables evidencias de que su número se ha visto reducido considerablemente durante la pasada década (2000-2010).

Existen dos subespecies de cercopiteco de Preuss:​


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Feb. 26.

Hannu Lintu


Hannu Petteri Lintu (born 13 October 1967, Rauma, Finland) is a Finnish conductor.

Lintu studied piano and cello at the Turku Conservatory and at the Sibelius Academy. He also studied conducting with Atso Almila, and later with Jorma Panula and Eri Klas. He took part in conducting master classes with Ilya Musin runners pouch. Lintu won the Nordic Conducting Competition in 1994 in Bergen. He graduated from the Sibelius Academy in 1996 with honours. Lintu took up a part-time appointment of professor of conducting at the Sibelius Academy in September 2014.

From 1998 to 2001, Lintu was chief conductor of the Turku Philharmonic Orchestra. In 2005, he served as the artistic director for the Summer Sounds Festival of the Finnish contemporary music ensemble Avanti!. Lintu was chief conductor of the Tampere Philharmonic Orchestra from 2009 to 2013. In December 2010, the Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra announced the appointment of Lintu as its eighth chief conductor, effective 1 August 2013, with an initial contract of 3 seasons. He held the title of principal guest conductor with the orchestra for the 2012-2013 season expandable running belt. In April 2016, the FRSO announced the extension of Lintu’s contract as chief conductor through 2021.

Outside of Finland, Lintu was chief conductor and artistic director of the Helsingborg Symphony Orchestra from 2002 to 2005. Lintu first conducted the RTÉ National Symphony Orchestra in January 2009. On the basis of that appearance, he was named principal guest conductor of the RTÉ National Symphony Orchestra, effective with the 2010-2011 season.

Lintu resides in Helsinki. He has conducted commercial recordings for such labels as Claves, Dacapo best running belt, Danacord, Hyperion, Naxos, and Ondine.


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Feb. 19.

Michel Schweizer


Michel Schweizer, est un acteur, metteur en scène, scénographe et chorégraphe français de théâtre contemporain, danse contemporaine, danse-théâtre et d’indiscipline né en 1958.

Après des études au Conservatoire à rayonnement régional de Bordeaux et à l’École des beaux-arts de Bordeaux, Michel Schweizer commence la danse contemporaine des années 1980. Il met en scène les « vêtements de l’imaginaire » pour la plasticienne Aline Ribiere en tant que modèle. De 1986 à 1994 il travaille avec la chorégraphe Isabelle Lasserre puis leur collaboration cesse en 1995.

Il crée l’entité culturelle la Coma en Aquitaine, destinée à couvrir la diversité des pratiques artistiques et propose une première création, Assanies (1998).

En février 2000, il crée Kings s’attachant à faire cohabiter des produits culturels et des échantillons spéculatifs (un danseur de hip-hop, un danseur contemporain, un vigile… ) susceptibles d’être appréciés pour ce qu’ils font et/ou ce qu’ils sont. Hamid Ben Mahi jouait dans le spectacle, ils retravaillent ensemble la même année dans Chonic(s).

Il continue les créations et en 2008 il crée Ô Queens invitant trois femmes (une danseuse, une culturiste et une strip teaseuse) à parler de leur condition.

En 2010 il invite des jeunes (Robin Barde, Elsa Boyaval, Clément Chebli, Pierre Carpentey, Aurelien Collewet, Pauline Corvellec, Zahra Hadi, Lucie Juaneda, Elisa Miffurc, Davy Monteiro) et un adulte (Gianfranco Poddighe) qui ont entre 17 et 20 ans à vivre une expérience artistique en représentant leur communauté, sur scène, tout en restant eux-mêmes, en mélangeant théâtre et musique ils parlent de la vie, du temps, de la vieillesse et de l’immortalité dans le spectacle Fauves.

En 2013 il crée le spectacle Cartel dans lequel, il choisi de tenter une collaboration avec d’anciens danseurs étoiles : Cyril Atanassoff (qui ne fera finalement pas le spectacle à cause d’une blessure) et Jean Guizerix. Se demandant, comment ces professionnels confirmés, peuvent retrouver une marge de liberté dans une sorte d’élan testamentaire arrivés à un âge où ils ne peuvent plus danser.

Michel Schweizer réitère l’expérience de Fauves en 2017 avec le spectacle Cheptel. Il invite cette fois ci, un groupe d’adolescents (Zakary Bairi, Aliénor Bartelmé, Lise-Anne Bouchereau, Hélie-Rose Dalmay, Anouk Lemaine, Zoé Montaye fabric lint remover, Rémi Plages, Nils Teynié) qui ont entre 12 et 15 ans à recréer sur scène un état de « nature&nbsp wholesale glass bottles;» au plus proche de leur ressenti, libérant une parole nécessaire et non contrainte. Dans une forêt imaginaire avec un kit de survie, des micros et un portable jusqu’à la rencontre avec un adulte (Bruno Beguin puis Pascal Quéneau).

La même année il est invité par le Festival d’Avignon pour une collaboration artistique avec Mathieu Desseigne-Ravel dans le cadre des sujets à vifs, ils créent Bâtards.

Il travaille très souvent avec la chanteuse, performeuse, et coach vocal Dalila Khatir.

Michel Schweizer organise depuis dix-huit ans des communautés provisoires pour en mesurer les degrés d’épuisement, il se joue des limites et des relations qu’entretiennent l’art, la politique et l’économie tout en laissant les interprètes dans le plus grand naturel possible.


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Feb. 17.

Lockheed U-2


Lockheed U-2, med tilnavnet Dragon Lady, er et enmotors, 1-sædet observationsfly, som anvendes af det amerikanske luftvåben. Flyet er fremstillet af den amerikanske flyproducent Lockheed og kan foretage overvågning dag og nat i stor højde (op til 21.000 m) i al slags vejr. Flyet har været anvendt siden 1957 og er et af de ældste designs i det amerikanske luftvåben. Selv med moderne satellitter og ubemandede overvågningsfly, har man ikke kunnet udfase U-2 flyene, da de stadig kan varetage opgaver og medbringe udstyr som fx Northrop Grummans RQ-4 Global Hawk ikke kan bære. En udfasning vil dog efter al sandsynlighed blive en realitet, efterhånden som de ubemandede fly kan udføre flere og flere forskellige opgaver. U-2 forventes at flyve i hvert fald frem til 2016

U-2 projektet blev indledt allerede i 1950’erne af CIA, der havde et stort behov for troværdige informationer om Sovjetunionen. Der blev foretaget overflyvninger med ombyggede og modificerede bombefly, men de var meget udsatte for antiluftskyts og bevæbnede jagerfly, og flere af disse fly var blevet skudt ned. Der var således behov for et fly, der kunne foretage overvågning fra stor højde, hvor det ville være umuligt, eller i hvert fald meget svært at skyde det ned. I begyndelsen var Lockheed Corporation ikke engang med i opløbet omkring kontrakten, men hørte ad omveje om projektet, og lederne bad den allerede højt anerkendte ingeniør Clarence „Kelly“ Johnson om at udvikle et koncept. Han havde tidligere stået bag fly som P-38 Lightning og F-104 Starfighter.

Projektet, der blev født som CL-282, kombinerede en let flykrop og lange tynde vinger inspireret af et svævefly med en enkelt jetmotor som et jagerfly. Efter en præsentation af det utraditionelle design til de ansvarlige i luftvåbnet blev det i første omgang forkastet, men flere embedsmænd og efterretningsfolk fandt ideen brugbar og foreslog CIA’s chef, Allen Dulles, at bygge flyet.

Lockheed Corporation fik overdraget opgaven med en kort tidsfrist, og kontrakten lød på 20 fly i første omgang. Udviklingen af flyet forblev en dyb hemmelighed, og navnet – U-2 – dækker over, at flyet blot tilhørte utility-kategorien, som blev brugt til mindre transportfly. Selv stedet i Nevadaørkenen, hvor flyvningerne skulle foregå, blev særligt oprettet til dette projekt alene og blev sidenhen kendt som Area 51 Allerede i august 1955 blev de første prøveflyvninger foretaget. I tilknytning til flykonstruktionen fik Edwin Land fra Polaroid Corporation overdraget opgaven med at udvikle en optik for det nye stor-format kamera, der skulle anvendes under U-2 missionerne. Disse nyudviklede kameraer kunne fotografere med en tilstrækkelig høj opløsning til, at man kunne se mennesker på jorden på billeder taget fra 21 km højde. Det nyudviklede U-2 fly foretog sin første overvågningsmission over Sovjetunionen i juni 1956 med start fra Army Airfield i Wiesbaden-Erbenheim i det daværende Vesttyskland (Operation Overflight).

Det utraditionelle design, der kombinerer et jetfly med et svævefly, gav piloterne en stor udfordring, når de skulle manøvrere flyet rundt i luften. På grund af dets lette konstruktion er det meget følsomt overfor sidevind og for at dette ikke var nok, er flyet kun udstyret med to sæt hovedhjul, monteret bag hinanden som på en cykel. For at støtte vingerne under start monteres et „støttehjul“ under hver vinge, som efter start falder af og skal samles op af jordpersonellet. Under landing findes støttehjulet jo ikke, så to hurtigtkørende biler følger efter flyet på banen og dirigerer over radio piloten hen ad banen. Når flyet nærmer sig standsning, vil den ene vinge uundgåeligt ramme jorden og er derfor beskyttet af en titanium-skinne. Efter stop monteres støttehjulene igen, og flyet køres væk fra banen. Den særligt farlige start- og landingsprocedure medførte især i begyndelsen flere fatale ulykker.

I sin maksimale operative højde af 70.000 fod flyver en U-2 meget tæt på både den maksimale hastighed og stall-hastigheden. Forskellen er kun ca. 10 knob, og både en forøgelse eller nedsætning af hastigheden udenfor disse grænser kan medføre tab af kontrollen og potentielt ødelægge den spinkle konstruktion, hvilket ville være katastrofalt over fjendtligt område. For at træne piloterne blev der lavet 5 styk to-sæders udgaver, hvor instruktøren sidder bag piloten i et ophøjet cockpit.

På grund af den store højde, flyet opererer i, er piloten altid iført en trykdragt under flyvning. Tab af kabinetrykket i så stor højde ville gøre piloten bevidstløs øjeblikkeligt. For at undgå bivirkninger ved disse højdeskift begynder piloten at indånde ren ilt en time før flyvningen og transporteres ud til flyet med iltmaske på. Det gøres for, at al nitrogen i blodet kan blive udåndet, og hindrer at piloten får dykkersygesymptomer.

Overvågningsudstyret findes i flyets næse, i kroppen eller til tider i pods under vingerne og kan udskiftes efter behov. Funktioner, der varetages af U-2 operatørerne spænder fra fotoefterretning (traditionel eller digital film), signalindsamling, radar-kortlægning og -overvågning til indsamling af atmosfæriske luftprøver.

Eftersom det ville være alvorligt, hvis et militært fly skulle blive skudt ned over fx sovjetisk territorium, blev alle „ulovlige“ overflyvninger foretaget af CIA. Piloterne blev opsagt fra forsvaret og var derfor i princippet „civile“.

U-2 flyet blev offentligt kendt under U-2 krisen, da et U-2 fly blev skudt ned over Sovjetunionen den 1. maj 1960, og piloten amber glass bottles, Francis Gary Powers, blev taget til fange. Hans mission havde været at starte fra Peshawar i Pakistan, fotografere ICBM faciliteter omkring Sverdlovsk og Plesetsk i Sovietunionen, for derefter at lande i Bodø, Norge. De præcise detaljer omkring nedskydningen er ikke bekræftede, men tilsyneladende havde indtil flere sovjetiske fly fulgt efter Powers‘ U-2, men uden at kunne nå det. 14 jord-til-luft missiler af typen S-75 Dvina (NATO-rapporteringsnavn: SA-2 Guideline) blev affyret, og et af dem detonerede tilsyneladende så tæt på, at flyet blev beskadiget. Gary Powers skød sig ud med katapultsæde, mens flyet styrtede. Uheldigvis for amerikanerne var meget af flyet intakt efter styrtet, og det lykkedes endda at fremkalde noget af filmen, der var blevet taget undervejs.

Senere var det et U-2 fly, der den 14. oktober 1962 fotograferede sovjetisk militærudstyr med atomare sprænghoveder om bord på skibe, der var undervejs til Cuba, hvilket udløste Cuba-krisen. I løbet af denne krise blev et U-2 fly skudt ned over Cuba af et S-75 Dvina-missil og styrtede ned.Major Rudolph Anderson omkom som den eneste under hele episoden.

Da U-2 ikke kan tankes i luften, som mange andre militære fly er i stand til, er dets rækkevidde begrænset af dets interne brændstoflager. For at overkomme denne begrænsning udførte CIA en række testflyvninger fra hangarskibe, hvilket resulterede i, at U-2 fly blev brugt til at overvåge franske atomprøvesprængninger ved Moruroa i 1964. Hangarskibsoperationer fortsatte frem til 1969.

Fra 1964 og frem til 1976 blev en lang række rekognosceringsflyvninger gennemført i forbindelse med Vietnamkrigen. Flyene var først udstationeret i dengang Sydvietnam, men blev senere flyttet til Thailand

Som det eneste andet land, der har opereret med U-2, blev Taiwan udstyret med flyene, leveret af CIA, i 1960. De blev primært brugt til flyvninger over Kina, og i løbet af deres tid i landet blev fem skudt ned. Efterhånden som forholdet mellem Sovjetunionen og Kina blev forværret, og USA ikke længere så dem som værende allierede og dermed en samlet trussel, blev operationerne med U-2 fly nedtrappet over Kina best hydration pack running, og de sidste fly blev leveret tilbage til USA i 1974.

I stort set hver konflikt, hvor USA er involveret i dag, er U-2 flyene at finde. De kan medbringe en større last af sensorer end tilsvarende fly og ubemandede droner, og de kan være i området pludseligt og usete, i modsætning til satellitter, hvis baner kan forudses. Northrop Grummans RQ-4 Global Hawk er den mest sandsynlige arvtager, og er i stand til at varetage flere og flere opgaver. Det kan desuden forblive i et område i over 24 timer af gangen, og de militære ledere behøver ikke bekymre sig om eventuel tilfangetagelse af en pilot, hvis det skulle blive skudt ned. Til trods for dette er der stadig mange, der ønsker at bevare flyet.



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Feb. 10.

KFNB – Bucephalus


Die Dampflokomotive „BUCEPHALUS“ war eine Personenzuglokomotive der KFNB. Sie war die dritte von der Lokomotivfabrik Tayleur & Co. in Warrington 1839 an die KFNB gelieferte Maschine und entsprach den englischen Typen mit Achsformel 1A1 (vgl. „AUSTRIA“ und „VINDOBONA“). Die Zylinder waren unter der Rauchkammer angeordnet und trieben die gekröpfte zweite Achse an.

Die „BUCEPHALUS“ hat 1839 einen Hofzug in 29 Minuten von Gänserndorf nach Wien gebracht. Das ergibt eine durchschnittliche Geschwindigkeit von 62,5 km/h!

Die „BUCEPHALUS“ wurde 1862 ausgemustert.

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Feb. 10.

Lutgardis


Saint Lutgardis of Aywières (Dutch: Sint-Ludgardis; 1182 – 16 June 1246; also spelled Lutgarde) is a saint from the medieval Low Countries. She was born in Tongeren, known as Tongres in French (which is why she is also called „Lutgardis of Tongres“ or „Luitgard of Tonger(e)n“), and entered into religious orders at the age of twelve. During her life various miracles were attributed to her, and she is known to have experienced religious ecstasies. Her feast day is June 16.

Lutgardis was born at Tongeren in 1182. She was admitted into the Benedictine monastery of St. Catherine near Sint-Truiden at the age of twelve, not because of a vocation but because her dowry had been lost in a failed business venture. She was attractive, fond of nice clothes and liked to enjoy herself. For Lutgarde, as for so many other women of her time, the cloister represented a socially acceptable alternative to the disgrace of unmarried life in the world. She lived in the convent for several years without having much interest in religious life water in a glass bottle. She could come and go as she pleased, and received visitors of both sexes.

According to her Vita, it was in the parlour, a welcome break in the monotony of monastic observance best running hydration, that she was visited with a vision of Jesus showing her his wounds, and at age twenty she made her solemn profession as a Benedictine nun. Some of the sisters predicted that her change in behavior would not last. Instead, she became even more devout. Over the next dozen years, she had many visions of Jesus, Mary and St. John the Evangelist. Robert Bellarmine relates a story that Pope Innocent III, when recently deceased, appeared to Lutgardis in her monastery to thank her for the prayers and sacrifices she had offered for him during his reign as Roman Pontiff.

Accounts of her life state that she experienced ecstasies, levitated, and dripped blood from her forehead and hair when entranced. She refused the honor of serving as abbess. However, in 1205, she was chosen to be prioress of her community.

In 1208, at Aywières (Awirs), near Liège, she joined the Cistercians, a stricter order, on the advice of her friend Christina the Astonishing best running handheld water bottle. The nuns of Aywières spoke French, not Lutgarde’s native Flemish. Despite her efforts, she found the French tongue impossible to master. Living, working, and praying in the midst of her sisters she experienced a loneliness and solitude that she had never known before. Nonetheless, she contributed powerful images to the developing Christocentric mysticism.

The prolific multiplication of Cistercian monasteries of women in the Low Countries obliged the White Nuns to turn to the newly founded friars, disciples of Francis and Dominic, rather than to their brother monks, for spiritual and sacramental assistance. Lutgarde was a friend and mother to the early Dominicans and Franciscans, supporting their preaching by her prayer and fasting, offering them hospitality, ever eager for news of their missions and spiritual conquests. Her first biographer relates that the friars named her mater praedicatorum, the mother of preachers.

Lutgardis was one of the great precursors of the devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. The first recorded mystic revelation of Christ’s heart is that of St Lutgardis. According to Thomas Merton, Lutgardis „

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…entered upon the mystical life with a vision of the pierced Heart of the Saviour, and had concluded her mystical espousals with the Incarnate Word by an exchange of hearts with Him.“ When, in a visitation, Christ came to Lutgarde, offering her whatever gift of grace she should desire, she asked for a better grasp of Latin, that she might better understand the Word of God and lift her voice in choral praise. Christ granted her request and, after a few days, Lutgarde’s mind was flooded with the riches of psalms, antiphons, readings and responsories. However,a painful emptiness persisted. With disarming candour she returned to Christ, asking to return His gift, and wondering if she might, just possibly, exchange it for another. “And for what would you exchange it?” Christ asked. “Lord, said Lutgarde, I would exchange it for your Heart.” Christ then reached into Lutgarde and, removing her heart, replaced it with His own, at the same time hiding her heart within His breast.

During this time she is known to have shown gifts of healing and prophecy, and was an adept at teaching the Gospels. She was blind for the last eleven years of her life, and died of natural causes at Aywières. According to tradition, she experienced a vision in which Christ informed her of her death. She died on June 16, 1246, the day after the Feast of the Holy Trinity, at the age of 64.

St Lutgardis is considered one of the leading mystics of the 13th century. A life of Lutgardis, Vita Lutgardis, was composed less than two years after her death by Thomas of Cantimpre, a Dominican friar and a theologian of some ability. A Middle Dutch verse translation of this, the Leven van Lutgart, was produced in the second half of the 13th century and is now regarded as one of the canonical works of Dutch literature. Lutgardis was venerated at Aywières for centuries, and her relics were exhumed in the 16th century. On December 4, 1796, as a result of the French Revolution, her relics were sheltered at Ittre, where they remain. Works of art depicting the saint include a baroque statue of Lutgardis on the Charles Bridge by Matthias Braun in Prague and a painting by Goya. The statue on Charles Bridge (socha sv. Luitgardy) was sculpted by Braun in 1710 as a commission from Evžen Tyttl, the abbot of the Cistercian monastery in Plasy.

St. Lutgardis is the patron saint of the blind and physically disabled. In the 19th century, she was also taken as a patron of the Flemish movement because of her inability to speak Walloon.[citation needed]


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